|The Book of Common Prayer|
TRANSLATIONS INTO EASTERN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
I. Modern Greek. — At an early period of its activity the S.P.C.K., on March 17, 1700, declared its readiness to forward the work among the distressed Greeks, then all under Mohammedan rule, by
“Requesting John Williams, Lord Bishop of Chichester (died 1709) to draw up a Paper by way of Question and Answer, for the use of the Greek Christians, which Paper Dr. Woodroff [Principal of Gloucester Hall, Oxford] has promised shall be translated into the vulgar Greek by some Greeks at Oxford, and may be then printed and sent accordingly.”
Very little, however, could be done for many years, and more than a
century passed by before a translation of the Liturgy into modern Greek
was made by Calbo, as stated in Chapter XVI. Another version was made
a few years later-by the Rev. Henry Daniel Leeves (1790-1845), entitled
Ευχολογιον της ηνωμενης ’Eκκλησιας ’Aγγλιας τε και
’Ιρλανδιας κτλ . . . ’Εκ του ’Αγγλικου εις κοινην ’Εγγηνικην διαλεκτου
μεταφρασθεωτα . . . Δαπανη της προς επαυξησιν της Χριστιανικης Γνωτεως
εν Λονδινω αωλθ. xlii, 602 pages, 12mo.
Griffiths 461 & 46:2 (Bagster editions from the Polyglot)
Leeves was for many years a missionary in the service of tile British and Foreign Bible Society, residing at Constantinople, Syria and Athens. He translated the Old and New Testaments into modern Greek. In 1838 he returned to England for some time, and while there translated the Liturgy of the Church into modern Greek for the S.P.C.K. A very appreciative summary of Leeves’ work is given by Canton in Vol. II, pp. 5-22 and 272-275, of A History of the British and Foreign Bible Society, London, 1904.
2. A Bohemian translation of a small portion of the American
Book of Common Prayer was made in 1855 by’ the Rev. Stephen C.
Massoch, Sr., D.D., at that time missionary to the foreign population
of St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. It is a small duodecimo volume (paper, 4½ x
7¼ inches) of (2), 35 pages, with paper cover, containing a Bohemian
version of the Morning and Evening Prayer, the Litany and the Communion
Service of the American Prayer Book. It was printed probably in St. Louis.
Massoch died May 30, 1870. — Dean Samuel Hart, in The
York, February 18, 1908, p. 218, col. 2. There is a copy in the Maryland
Diocesan (the Stinnecke) Library, and another in the collection of the
custodian of the Standard Book of Common Prayer of the American Church.
Dean Hart, the custodian, to whom I am indebted for his unceasing kindness
and helpful advice and assistance, sent me a copy of the book for examination.
The pamphlet is printed in the Gothic character, with a long title, beginning:
Wybor Kozlicnich Modliteh Rannjah y Wecernich, . . . and ending: Tak
zada a prege srdecne wssem Ceskym Bratrum Spisowatel y Prekladatel Dr.
S. C. Massoch, Kazatel. Witissteny we Swatem Ludowiku, Pulnocne Americe,
Roku Spasytele Sweta, 1855.
not listed by Griffiths
3. A Polish Service Book was printed in London in 1836, entitled: Liturgia: czyli ksiega Modlitew Powszechnych, z obrzẹdami Sprawowania Sakramentow świẹtych i innemi Ceremoniani ktore w koschiele Biskupim angielskim używane bywajạ dla pozýtku prawowiernych, z angielskiego języka na Polski Przelozóna. Przez A. Gerlach, Filozofii i Teologii Doktora i Kaznadzeje, D.Z. London: 1836. Unpaged (504 pages), 24mo.
Gerlach was for many years a missionary among the Jews, employed by
the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews. He had
been born and brought up a Catholic, and then became a convert to Protestantism.
He offered his services to the society in 1827, and after a short stay
at the society’s seminary he was stationed, in 1828, at Thorn,
where he remained until 1833. He travelled through the provinces of West
and East Prussia, and along the Polish frontier, making known the Gospel
to the Jews. It is recorded that at one place he went regularly to the
synagogue every Sabbath, and after the manner of the apostles of old,
reasoned with the Jews out of their own Scriptures that “Jesus
is the Christ.” In 1833 Cracow was occupied as
a missionary station, by permission of its governing senate, and Gerlach
became here his society’s first agent as missionary to the more
than 20,000 Jews. He was assisted, and in 1838 succeeded, by the Rev.
T. E. Hiscock. That Gerlach did not confine his work exclusively to the
Jews, but approached also the Polish-speaking communities, is proven
by his Polish translation of a portion of the Book of Common Prayer.
4 Into Russian only selections of the Liturgy were translated, entitled: Molitvy, vybrannyya iz liturgii soediinennoy tserkvi Anglii i Irlandii; obrazovannyya dlya semeystvennoy sluzhby. Obshchestvo dlya rasprostraneniya, Molitvennīkov i Khristianskikh besyed. London, 1855, 34 pages, 8vo.
A literal translation would be: Prayers, selected from the Liturgy of the United Church of England and Ireland, for family service. London, S.P.C.K.
The selections were probably printed for the use of chaplains stationed in Russia and for the use of Russian prisoners during the Crimean war.
Ten years later, in 1865, the same society put out diglot editions, in English and in Russian, of several offices and parts of the Prayer Book, as follows: (1) The Order for Morning Prayer, daily throughout the year, according to the use of the United Church of England and Ireland. Follows title in Russian, beneath the English title. London ... 1864 [on cover, 1865]. English and Russian on opposite pages. 17, 17 pages; paper, 3¼ x 6 inches. The same arrangement is followed in the other publications, viz., (2). The Litany, 9, 9 pages; (3) The Order of the Administration of the Lord’s Supper, or Holy Communion, 33, 33 pages; (4) The Catechism.
On the second page of the cover in each of these pamphlets is printed,
in Russian translation, a list of the twenty-nine parts making up the
Prayer Book of the United Church of England and Ireland.
|Griffiths lists no translations into Russian|
5. Hungarian.-No Hungarian translation of the Prayer Book or of portions thereof has ever been printed to our knowledge; but it deserves to be noted here that:
“at a meeting of the Board of the New York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society, held on 12 Febr., 1861, the secretary stated that ‘an eminent and educated lady, the sister of [Lajos] Kossuth [1802-94], now a member of the Church, had offered to prepare and present to this Board a translation of the Book of Common Prayer in the Hungarian language as a freewill offering to the Church, if the Board would under proper sanction print the same for distribution among her countrymen in Hungary.’ Whereupon the following resolution was offered: ‘Resolved, That this Board is favourably impressed with the importance of the above undertaking, and also of the piety that prompted the offer, and that they accept same provided the General Convention will approve.’” —LOWNDES, Vol. II, p. 672.
It is rather disappointing that Lowndes nowhere states what action the Board ultimately took; whether or not the matter was submitted to the General Convention next ensuing; whether any portion of the translation was submitted to the Board in manuscript form, and if so, what had become of it. It is one of the numerous cases in which A Century of Achievement, otherwise most valuable, leaves one utterly dissatisfied by its silence, though its author, as the present editorial secretary of the society, could and should have given definite information, or at least have stated when definite information was impossible to ascertain.
|Griffiths lists one Hungarian translation of the US BCP: 54:1 (1915)|
POCOCKE AND THE ARABIC TRANSLATIONS
HITHERTO only such translations have been discussed which were not made prima facie for missionary purposes, but rather for the use of settled congregations. The translations treated from now on were made at the very start, and principally for missionary purposes.
Among the translations into the Near-East languages and dialects those into Arabic were the earliest and the most important.
Edward Pococke was born at Oxford in 1604. He received priest’s
orders in 1629 from Bishop Richard Corbet, in accordance with the terms
of his fellowship in Corpus Christi College. He was given to Oriental
studies when still at college. In 1630 he was appointed chaplain to the
English “Turkey Merchants” at Aleppo, where he resided for
over five years. During this time he made himself master of Arabic, which
he not only read, but spoke fluently, studied Hebrew, Samaritan, Syriac
and Ethiopic, and associated on friendly terms with learned Moslems and
Jews. In 1636 he was appointed the first incumbent of the Laudian professorship
of Arabic, founded by Archbishop Laud at Oxford. A severe illness in
1663 left him permanently lame, but did not long arrest his energy. He
translated in 1671 .the Catechism and the principal parts of the Liturgy
into Arabic, which in 1672 appeared, entitled: Liturgiæ Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ partes
prrecipuæ: viz. Preces Matutinæ & Vespertinæ; Ordo
administrandi cœnam Domini; Ordo Baptismi Publici; una cum ejusdem
Ecclesiæ Doctrina, triginta novem Articulis comprehensa, nec non
Homiliarum Argumentis: in linguam Arabicam traductæ. Operâ E. Pocock.
 See the appreciative notice in Anderson, The
History of the Church of England in the Colonies, Vol. II, pp. 117-130 (London, 1856).
Pococke’s translation was made originally for the Rev. Robert Huntington, his friend and, at that time, successor in the chaplaincy at Aleppo. He sent him first the Church Catechism which he had translated for the use of young Christians in the East. Soon afterwards, at Huntington’s request, Pococke published and sent out to him an Arabic translation which he had made of the Daily Morning and Evening Prayers in the Prayer Book, the Order of the Administration of Baptism, and of the Lord’s Supper. He also translated. the doctrine of the Church of England as set forth in the Thirty-nine Articles and the arguments of Qur Homilies.
The translation did not meet with universal acceptance on the part of
Arabic-speaking Christians, for Henry William Ludolf (1655-1710), Prince
George’s secretary, stated at a meeting of the S.P.C.K., December
30, 1700, that “The Comon Prayer-book, printed in Arabik at Oxford,
and distributed in the Levant, did not meet wth so kind a reception there
as could be wished”.
 Upon his return from Aleppo, in 1683, Huntington was appointed provost of Trinity College, Dublin, a position held until 1692, when he was consecrated bishop of Raphoe. He was born in 1837 and died in 1701.
After more than a century the first complete translation of the Liturgy was edited by Dr. Mill.
William Hodge Mill (1792-1853) was a noted Orientalist. He took deacon’s orders in 1817, and priest’s in the following year. Continuing in residence at Cambridge as fellow of Trinity College, he appears to have devoted himself especially to Oriental studies. In 1820 he was appointed the first principal of Bishop’s College, Calcutta, then just founded, under the supervision of Bishop Thomas Fanshaw Middleton (1769-1822). The new principal proved a happy combination of executive ability and scholarly attainments. He not only assisted in the publication of works in Arabic, but likewise addressed himself to the study of the vernaculars and of Sanskrit. He resigned in 1838, owing to poor health, and returned to Europe. Ten years later he was appointed regius professor of Hebrew at the University of Cambridge, with a canonry at Ely. He died on December 25, 1853.
In conjunction with John Tytler, another Arabic scholar, Mill brought
out, in 1837, an Arabic translation
of the whole Prayer Book. Its Latin title reads:
| See Allen and McClure, p. 201 ; McClure, A Chapter in English Church History: Being the minutes of the S.P.C.K. for the years 1698-1704; London, 1888; pp. 102, 103.|
xxxvi, 277, 216 pages; paper, 8 x 10½ inches. The reverse of title-page
contains the approbation of Daniel Calcuttensis, ep. Follows title in
Arabic, reverse blank.
|A few years later, in 1840, appeared a
new translation (xl, 662 pages, 8vo) at Valetta, on the island of Malta.
It was the work of Faris ibn Yūsuf, al-Shidyák (Fāris
ash-Shidyāk), a native of Mount Lebanon, Syria, who in later years
called himself Ahmad Fāris. He was professor of Arabic in the University
of Malta, and translator of the whole Bible into Arabic. He worked under
the supervision of a committee of Arabic scholars, which included Samuel
Lee and Thomas Jarrett (1805-82), professor of Arabic, and afterwards regius
professor of Hebrew at the University of Cambridge.
 For the Arabic titles of this and the following editions I refer to Vol. I, cols. 951, 952, of Catalogue of Arabic Books in the British Museum, by A. G. Ellis. London, 1894.
|The edition of 1840 was reprinted in London
in 1850, iv, 634, 2 pages, 12mo. It contained numerous alterations and
|Selections from this translation were published
in 1844 by the Prayer Book and Homily Society, London, 206 pages, 12mo,
entitled: Portions. of the Book of Common Prayer, . . . namely: The Order
of the Morning and Evening Prayer, the Collects appointed for the Sundays
and Festivals throughout the year; also, the Order of the Administration
of the Lord’s Supper, or Holy Communion, and of the public Baptism
of Infants, the Visitation of the Sick, and the Burial of the Dead . .
. From the Arabic version lately printed at Malta.
|A new edition was put out in 1884 by the S.P.C.K.
It was a text revised by the Rev. F(riedrich) A (ugust) Klein, a missionary
for the C.M.S., and originally a graduate of the Easle Mission House. He
entered the services of the C.M.S. as a young man and laboured mostly in
Palestine, beginning his work together with Dr. Nikolaus Carl Albrecht
Sandreczki, and in Syria together with two other German missionaries, Johannes
Zeller and J. J. Huber. From time to time they undertook missionary tours.
It was on one of these journeys that Klein discovered in 1868 the famous
Moabite Stone, containing the genuine record of the deeds of Mesha, king
of Moab, nearly 3,000 years old. In 1877 the C.M.S. was obliged to withdraw
two missionaries from Palestine, one of them being Klein. He retired to
Germany, and there employed his time upon linguistic work. In 1882 he had
the honour of beginning the mission of the C.M.S. at Cairo, in Egypt, and
remained there for some years, continuing at the same time his Arabic translations.
He returned to Europe in 1893 and died in England, December 1, 1903.
not listed by Griffiths
Another version was made for the S.P.C.K. in 1886 by Antonio Tien, a S.P.G. missionary, xxi, 577 pages, 8vo. The prefaces are omitted in this edition. Tien was born, a Syrian Christian, June 13, 1834- He was educated at the Propaganda, Rome, and at St. Augustine’s College, Canterbury. He obtained the degree of Ph.D. at Rome in 1852. The Ancient Syrian Church created him D.Th. in 1909. He was ordered deacon in 1860 and ordained priest in 1862. He was honorary secretary and chaplain to the English Egyptian Mission from 1869 to 1893, and became in later years professor at King’s College. He is the author of grammatical publications on the languages spoken in the Levant.
Modern Maltese is a patois of Modern Arabic. The island of Malta has been under British rule since the year 1800. For many years it was the most important missionary station in the Mediterranean, and was occupied by all the missionary societies seeking to work in the Levant. The prevailing denomination is the Roman Catholic, whose worship is well described by the Rev. Henry Seddall, in Malta, past and present, London, 1870; pp. 309-315.
At Valetta, the chief town of the island, a printing press was established, which at one time was under the charge of John Kitto (1804-54), the deaf but learned mason who in later years did so much toward popularizing the best results of Biblical study and Oriental research. This press sent forth the Scriptures and tracts by the thousands in Maltese, Italian, Modern Greek and Arabic. Maltese was especially studied as an introduction to Arabic, and a large part of the Bible was produced in it.
The leading mind in the very important literary work carried on in Malta was for many years C. F. Schlienz, an accomplished scholar, who in sixteen years sent out from the Malta press hundreds of thousands of portions of Scripture, books and tracts, in Italian, Maltese, Modern Greek, Turkish, Arabic and Amharic. Perhaps his most important work was the Maltese-Arabic Bible and Prayer Book, toward the production of which the S.P.c.K. gave pecuniary aid. This was granted, undoubtedly, after the receipt of a letter from Schlienz, October r8, r838. According to this letter:
“Mr. Schlienz, of Malta, was impressed in 1838
with the manifestation of friendly feeling expressed by the Coptic
clergy and by their Patriarch, after seeing and reading the Prayer
Book in Arabic. The priests, . almost invariably, turned first to the
Creeds, which, as three golden links, presented a pleasing attraction
to their eye, and the catholicity of feeling thus evinced by the English
Church gave them general satisfaction. They were also much pleased
with the Communion Service, declaring that it removed from their minds
those prejudices which had existed under the idea that Anglicans did
not commemorate the Lord’s Supper,
or only once a year, and then in a manner unbecoming Christians”.
| Digest of the S.P.G. records, 5th edition, 1895, p. 805.|
The Maltese-Arabic translation of the Liturgy, entitled Kĕtieb it Talb ta’ Âalenia, &c., was published in 1845, by M. Weiss, at Valetta, xxiv, 300, 119 pages, 8vo. The Psalter, together with the Liturgical Epistles, Gospels and other passages of Scripture, appeared in this Maltese version translated by Michael Angelo Camillari, at the suggestion of George Tomlinson, first bishop of Gibraltar (1842-63).
Christoph Friedrich Schlienz was born in Kirchheim unter Teck, in Wuertemberg, October 26, 1803. He soon showed great aptitude in the acquirement of foreign languages. From 1821 to 1826 he studied at the Basle Mission House, preparing for the mission field. After completing his studies there he entered the service of the C.M.S., and spent a year and six months at Islington College studying Oriental languages. He was sent to Malta as assistant to the Rev. William Jowett, who was in charge of the mission press. An accident which befell him in Egypt, whither he had been sent to study Modern Arabic for the purpose of translating the Bible into Arabic, incapacitated him for a long time, at various intervals, from continuing his chosen work. In 1847 he. began work at Basle as professor in the mission school, St. Chrischona, an institution founded by Christian Friedrich Spittler (1782-1867) in 1840 to advance the cause of home missions. Here he died, after a most successful, though arduous work, on April 26, 1868.
 On Jowett’s work as secretary of the Malta Auxiliary see Canton, Vol. II, pp. I, 2, 22-25.
TRANSLATIONS MADE FOR THE CONVERSION OF THE MODERN JEW AMONG MANY NATIONS
NEXT in chronological order to the Arabic
version of Pococke was the early endeavour of a converted Jew to. reach
his former co-religionists by a translation of the Book of Common Prayer
into Hebrew. Johannes F. A. de le Roi, in Die evangelische
Christenheit und die Juden in der Zeit des Zwiespalts in der Christlichen
Lebensanschauung unter den Völkern.
B. Grossbritannien und die aussereuropäischen Länder wahrend
des 19. Jahrhunderts, p. 16, mentions the translations
of the New Testament into Hebrew through the agency of the London Society
for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, and then continues:
| Schriften des
Institutum Judaicum in Berlin, NO.9, Vol. III.
"Ausserdem wurde die
Liturgie der englischen Kirche ins Hebräische übersetzt, von 1834-36, und dadurch den
Juden Form und Inhalt des ihnen wenig bekannten christlichen Gottesdienstes.
naher gebracht. Man benutzte die Übersetzung des Proselyten Abraham
Bar Jacob aus dem Jahre 1717, von der sich ein Exemplar in Dublin in Trinity
College vorfand. Ebenso wurde von der Ubersetzung des Common Prayer Book,
welche der Proselyt [Christian] Czerskier in Warschau veranstaltet hatte,
Gebrauch gemacht und dieselbe von M’Caul and Reichhardt revidirt.
Diese Liturgie ward in den Gottesdiensten der Gesellschaftskapelle auf
Palestine Place seit 1837 und in Jerusalem seit 1838 gebraucht. Da der
jüdische Gottesdienst ein durchaus liturgischer ist, war die Einführung
der hebräischen Liturgie im Missionsgottesdienst von Werth.”
The translation of 1717 was not printed; but it is preserved in manuscript in the library of Trinity College,. Dublin, and mentioned in the Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. By T. K. Abbott, 1900, p. 402, no. 1499: “Hebrew.-Book of Common Prayer in Hebrew. Dublin, 1717.” Who Abraham Bar Jacob was, or when the manuscript was presented to Trinity College library, we are unable to say. The librarian of the college, Dr. T. K. Abbott, who kindly endeavoured to furnish the information communicated to the author his inability to. find any clue regarding either point. It seems to us that the manuscript was not presented by the translator himself” but rather by such a man as John Ste(a)rne (1660-1745)~ bishop of Clogher (1717-45), a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, vice-chancellor of the university and a great benefactor, who, among other gifts, bequeathed to the college his manuscripts, of which he had a most valuable collection; or by William .King (1650-1729), archbishop of Dublin.
The first printed edition of portions of the Liturgy in Hebrew appeared
in 1833, entitled: “Liturgiæ Ecclesiæ partes præcipuæ;
scilicet preces matutinæ et vespertinæ nunc primum in Hebraicam
linguam traductæ. Londini: Impensis Friderici Bialloblotzky, 1833,
8vo, 2 parts. The Hebrew title reads as follows:
 Dr. Abbott’s communications were of January
1 and 31, 1912. —There is not the slightest allusion to the gift of the
manuscript to be found in Taylor’s History of
the University of Dublin (London, 1845), in Stubbs, The
History of the University of Dublin . . .
(Dublin, 1889), nor in The Book of Trinity College,
Dublin, 1591-1891 (Belfast,
1892). — As a mere curiosity we mention here: “A short Catechisme,
by law authorised in the Church of England, for young Children to learne.
Translated into Hebrew, by Thomas Ingmethorpe.” (London: R. Milbourne,
1633; 38 pp.; 8vo). Ingmethorpe (1562-1638) was a schoolmaster and M.A.
from Brasenose College, Oxford, 1586. Wood, Athenæ (ed. Bliss), Vol.
IV, p. 592, speaks of him as a famous schoolmaster and eminent in the Hebrew
A transliteration reads: Seder tĕfillôth Yisrael ham-ma’minim bishuă‘ ham-mashi. Ne‘ĕtaq mil-Iashôn English et lashôn haq-qodesh, London. A literal translation follows;: Order of the prayers of Israel, of those who believe in Jesus the Messiah. Translated from the English language into the sacred language. London. ,593 (= 1833).
The translator, Christian Hermann Friedrich Bialloblotzky, was born of Jewish parents on April 9, 1799, at Pattensen, near Hanover, Germany. He died March 28, 1868, at Ahlden-an-der-Aller, Germany. When a young man he joined the Christian church. He wrote several works on Christian theology, and published also some on Jewish subjects.
Czerskier’s translation of the Liturgy, referred to above, was first published in 1836. Scarce anything is known concerning him beyond the bare statement in Gidney’s History of the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews (London, 1908), p. 100:.
“A Jewish convert, Czerskier by name, who was in the Society’s
service as a translator and corrector for the press, devoted himself particularly
to the translation of the Scriptures into Judæo-Polish, and the Liturgy
of the Church of England into Hebrew.”
Editions of this translation appeared in 1836 (1837); 1842 ( (8), 323, 123 pages); 1849 (1, 8, 323, 124 pages; paper, 5⅜ x 8⅜ inches); and in 1853 ( (19), 324, 124 pages; page, 3¼ x 6; paper, 4¼ x 7⅛ inches). The 1849 edition has an English title, reverse blank, preceding the Hebrew title.
The latter reads:
Title as well as text are unpointed. A transliteration of the title, given
here pointed for the sake of convenience, would be as follows: Seder hat-tĕfillâh
kĕfî minhag qĕhillath ham-mashîăh shel mĕdînăth
England wĕ Irĕland. Nidfas sĕlîshîth be‘îr
hab-bīrâh London. Bishĕnâth
ham-mashîăh, “we-áttâh tishmă‘ hash-shâmâiim
wĕ-sâláhtâ lĕ-hata’th ‘amĕkâ Yisrâ’êl.” The
following is a literal translation: “ Order of Prayers, according
to the rite of the congregation (i.e., the Church) of England and Ireland.
Printed in the capital city of London. In the year of the Messiah: And
Thou in heaven hearest and forgivest the sin of the people of Israel”.
|Griffiths 51:3 (1836); 51:4 (1841, reprinted 1842, 1849, 1853, 1859)|
The date of publication is indicated by the letters in this quotation, which have a black-letter dot placed above them. These letters are called literæ punctatæ. In the edition of 1849, described above, these letters are א = 1,000; ת = 400; ם = 40; and ט = 9 = 1849·
Of this translation Gidney, pp. 152-3, says:
“Another most important event was the publication,
in 1837, by the Society, of the Liturgy of the Church of England in
Hebrew . . . many important testimonies to the accuracy of the translation
were received by learned divines and scholars. Missionaries of the
Society, too, have testified again and again to the extreme usefulness
of this Hebrew version of our Prayer Book, which has enabled services
to be held in that language in the Society’s churches in London
and Jerusalem, and has been a standing witness to the Jew of the simplicity,
the purity and the Scriptural character of Divine worship according
to the rites of that Church of which the Society’s missionaries
are ministers. This is no small matter with a people who are greatly
aversed to anything which savours, however slightly, of idolatry. .
. . Apart from its public use, moreover, it has been a guide to private
devotion. Accustomed to a form of prayer all their lives, Jews need
a substitute when they become Christians, and this the Prayer Book
| A quotation from 1 Kings, chap. viii, verse
|The two men who revised Czerskier’s translation
were McCaul and Reichhardt. Alexander McCaul was born in 1799, the son
of Protestant parents. He early became interested in the spiritual welfare
of the Jews, and devoted all his life to them. He began his missionary
career at Warsaw, Poland, under the auspices of the London Society. In
1832 he settled in London, and took up his residence in Palestine Place,
Cambridge Road, actively supported the London Society, and assisted in
founding the Jews’ Operatives Converts’ Institution, at which
most of the early publications of the Society were set up and printed.
He was offered in 1841 the new bishopric of Jerusalem, but he declined,
recommending his friend Michael Salomon Alexander. He was successively
rector of several parishes in England. When the sittings of Convocation
were revived in 1852, he was elected proctor for the London clergy, and
he represented them until his death in 1863. — Johann Christian Reichhardt
was born in 1803 at Ruhrort, Rhine Province, Germany. He studied at the
Berlin Mission Seminary of Father Johann Jaenicke (1748-1827). Through
the agency of Sir George Rose, British Ambassador at Berlin, he entered
in 1824 the service of the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst
the Jews. As a missionary of that society he worked in Poland, Bavaria
and Holland. In 1830 he was called to London, to work among the British
Jews conjointly with the future Bishop Alexander. He died in
|| See also Gidney, pp.
179 and 263. Of the Hebrew translation St. Clair Tisdall justly remarks
that, “as it
is mainly intended for the use of Hebrew Christians, it would have been
much more useful and would have had much greater charm for them had the
translators adopted as much as possible the phraseology employed in the
very ancient Synagogue Service-Book familiar to them all since infancy.”
In 1829, the year in which the London Jew
Society began its work in Smyrna, there appeared at Dublin, Ireland,
*Βιβλιον των δημοσιων προσευχων ׃הטרוכצה
רדסו הלפחה רצש The Book of Common Prayer, civ, 106, 10, (1) pages; 12mo.
The book was written throughout in lithographic ink by Marianne Nevill
within a month, for the use of Christian Israelites at Smyrna. The title
and the rubrics are in Hebrew, Modern Greek and English. The edition
contains the Calendar, Morning Prayer, the Litany and the first part
of the Communion Office. Then follow, with a special title-page, the
Collects, Epistles and Gospels, and the Catechism, likewise with a special
 On Alexander (1799-1845), the first Episcopal Bishop of Jerusalem (1841-45), see” Biographies of Eminent Hebrew Christians, IV: Bishop Alexander.” By the Rev. W. T. Gidney. (London: London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, 1903; 28 pp.; portrait; 24mo). De le Roi, M. S. Alexander, ev. Bischof von Jerusalem. Leipzig, 1897. 8vo.
Concerning Miss Nevill, the Rev. Francis L. Denman, secretary of the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, procured from the Rev. Dr. Arthur Lukyn Williams the following note:
“Marianne Nevill is presumably referred to in De
Ie Roi. volume II (189 I). page 144. speaking of a service for Jews
in Berlin: ‘Die
erste Anregung zu der Errichtung dieses Gottesdienstes hatte eine reiche
Irländerin. Miss Neville, gegeben, welche, durch Krankheit ans
Bett gefesselt, ihr Vermögen und die ihr noch gebliebenen Kräfte
für die Mission verwendete; besonders unterstützte sie auch
die von der Posener Hilfsgesellschaft enichteten Schulen.’ — Possibly
the General Neville who was one of the ‘prominent new lay members
of Committee’ in 1820-1829 (GIDNEY. History
of the L.J.S., page
68) was a relation”.
| A copy of this now rare publication is in the library of the General Theological Seminary, New York, N.Y. Griffiths also lists a copy at Univ. of Wales, Lampeter.|
A Church of England service was commenced in 1823 at Warsaw, Poland, and the following year a German service was established on Saturday and Sunday. The mission continued to prosper, and in 1841 there was published at Warsaw: “Ein Auszug aus dem Allgemeinen Gebetbuch der Kirche von England und Irland.” Missions Buchdruckerei. 1841. 40, 187 pages, 8vo. The Hebrew title reads
The book contains German and Hebrew text of the Morning and Evening Prayers, the Litany, and the Commandments. The Psalter occupies the greater portion of the text.
The Second Polish Revolution in 1846 and the severe outbreak of the
cholera in 1848 hampered the work considerably. Three weeks before the
death of Emperor Nicholas I the Poland Mission to the Jews was forced
to close. Russian Poland remained closed to the Society for twenty years —
from 1855 until 1876.
| In this connection I beg leave to acknowledge my indebtedness to the Rev. F. L. Denman for much information and material furnished toward the construction of this chapter. Likewise, I beg to thank my friends Professor Leo Wiener, of Harvard University, and Dr. I. M. Casanowicz, one of the curators of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., for advice and assistance.|
 See Gidney, p. 286.
A Hebrew translation of the American Liturgy was proposed to the General Convention of 1844 by Bishop Christopher Edwards Gadsden (1785-1852), of South Carolina (1840-1852). The matter was referred to the Committee on the Prayer Book. And there it has rested since.
Polish Jews speak a jargon variously styled Judæo-Polish, Judæo-German, Jüdisch-Deutsch, Jüdisch or Yiddish, the basis of which is German, with many Hebrew and a few Polish words. Various other vernaculars enter into the composition of Yiddish, according to the country in which the Jews happen to be residing. The result is a strange medley, the colloquial language and medium of communication — often the only one — of millions of Jews, with a large literature of their own. In missionary circles much attention is being given to the problem of reaching these Jews by means of versions of the Holy Scriptures, tracts and liturgical collections. It is rather surprising that the London Society has not yet provided a Yiddish translation of the Liturgy, or of portions thereof, for this, the larger half of the present Jewish race, instead of issuing, as they did in 1899, a German edition of the Morning and Evening Prayer in Hebrew characters.
The pamphlet is entitled: ברצהו רחשה תלפת רדס Die Ordnung der Morgen und Abendgebete fir das ganze Jahr, welche gebraucht werden in der Christlichen Kirche von England und Irland. London. Gedruckt in dem Jahr von dem Messiah, 1899.
Title, reverse blank; text, 35 pages, 16mo. The translation was made by the Rev. R. S. Spiegel, a missionary who worked in Whitechapel, Leeds, Hull and Spitalfields. He is a convert of the London Society. After years of work under the Society’s auspices he left them to join another mission.
(9] See Leo Wiener, The History at Yiddish Literature in the Nineteenth Century, New York, 1899; and Pines, Histoire de la literature judéo-allemande . . . Paris, 1911.
not listed by Griffiths
|When Ferdinand of Castile drove the Jews from
Spain in. 1492, and when the Jews were exiled from Portugal in 1497, the
greater portion of them fled to Constantinople, and settled there and in
the neighbourhood. They still retain in common use the Spanish language
of the fifteenth century strongly intermixed with Hebrew idioms. They go
by the name of Sephardim, in distinction from their Polish brethren, the
Askenazim. Their number is now about 70,000. They represent a form of Spanish
which differs dialectically from that current in Spain.
|The Book of Common Prayer was translated into
Judæo-Spanish by John Baptist Cohen,called “John the Evangelist.” It
was printed at Smyrna in Rabbinical Hebrew characters in the year 1844.
Cohen and a friend had been baptised in Constantinople by the Rev. John
Hartley about 1826, whereupon both were seized, thrown into prison and
bastinadoed. When they were at last set free in 1828, Cohen went to Symrna
and there preached the Gospel to the Jews. Eventually he was seized again
and condemned to death in 1838. The death sentence was commuted to imprisonment
for life. After a time he succeeded in escaping to England, where he was
heartily welcomed. Some indiscretion while at the University of Oxford
almost ruined him. He sincerely repented, and. returned to Smyrna as an
assistant in the mission, of which he took entire charge after the retirement
of the Rev. W. B. Lewis. Here also he translated into Judæo-Spanish
the· Bible and the Book of Common Prayer. In 1844 Cohen resigned
his missionary work, but he continued his services as a translator. The
greater portion of the edition of the Liturgy in Judæo-Spanish was
destroyed by a disastrous. fire on July 3, 1845. This explains the fact
that at present. only a very few copies of the book are known to exist
During the latter years of his life Cohen was in charge of a depot at Smyrna
for the sale of the Holy Scriptures. He died of fever during the early
fifties of the last century.
Selections of the edition of 1844 were printed in 1872 at Constantinople. A transliteration of the title runs thus:
EI livro de Ōrasiones asegun el uzo de la Qĕhillah del Meshiakh de Inglaterra i Irlanda. Constantinopla. Estampado de A Buyanian en año del Meshiakh, 1872. 190 pages, small 8vo. Title, reverse blank; text, pp. 3-190. The book is printed in the Rabbinical Hebrew character.
The revisers and editors were the Rev. J. M. Eppstein and the Rev. Christian Samuel Newman. John Moses Epppstein was born of Jewish parents at Memel, in Prussia, in 1827. From 1851 to 1867 he was a missionary at Bagdad. He was then transferred to Smyrna, where for eighteen years he did devoted work. He was a faithful man, who by his medical skill found entrance among the people. From Smyrna he returned to England and laboured for nine years (1885-94) in London, and the last nine years of his life in Bristol, where he died in the spring, of 1903. — Newman studied at the Hebrew College of the London Jews’ Society, and was ordained deacon and priest in 1864 by the bishop of Gibraltar. He served the society as a missionary from 1857 until his death in 1881.
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