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THE chief speech of European and Asiatic Turkey, and the official language of the Turkish empire, is Osmanli. It differs from other Turkish dialects mainly in the extensive adoption of Persian and Arabic terms, especially in jurisprudence and theology.

Editions of the Book of Common Prayer in Turkish are printed in two different characters — Arabic or Armenian — according as they are intended for Turks or for Armenians who speak Osmanli. Books in these characters are distinguished as Arabo-Turkish or Armeno-Turkish.

In 1819 Constantinople was occupied by the C.M.S. as a second mission centre of its Mediterranean Mission, Malta having been the first since 1815. Constantinople was abandoned again in 1821, in consequence of an outbreak of fanaticism among the Turks, caused by the Greek War of Independence. Nine years later the Rev. Johannes Zeller {died 1902) and the Rev. Peter Fjellstedt were stationed in Smyrna, the centre of Greek culture in Asia Minor. Fjellstedt was a Swede, who had been invalided from India, having been with Carl Gottlieb Ewald Rhenius (1790-1836) of the C.M.S. in Tinnevelly. In 1840 he was recalled to England and retired. Two years after his retirement the S.P.C.K. published for him at Leipzig, through R. Tauchnitz, a translation of the Liturgy into Turkish (712 pages, 8vo), in which he had enjoyed the assistance of a native convert of Constantinople.

An edition of portions of the Book of Common Prayer in Arabic character was published in London by the S.P.C.K., 1858. A revised text of these portions, edited by the Rev. Dr. Antonio Tien, was published by the same society in 1864.

Previous chapter

Griffiths 183: 1 (1842)


Griffiths 183:2 (1856, reprinted 1858)


Of far greater value than the translations just described was that of Dr. S. W. Koelle, in 1883. Sigismund Wilhelm Koelle was born at Cleebronn, in Wiirtemberg, in 1820, and died in London, 1902. He was educated at the Basle Mission House and the Church Missionary College at Islington. He studied with marked success Arabic under Heinrich Ewald at Tübingen, where also he obtained his degree of Ph.D. He went first as missionary to Sierra Leone, where during a five years’ sojourn he collected the materials for his great work Polyglotta Africana: or, a comparative vocabulary of nearly three hundred distinct African languages (London, 1854, vi, 24, 188 pages, folio), a work which the French Institute crowned with the great Volney prize in 1855.

In 1859 the C.M.S. sent to Constantinople the ablest of their Mohammedan missionaries, Dr. Karl Gottlieb Pfander and Koelle. Pfander (1803-1865) graduated from the Basle Mission House and became missionary of the C.M.S. at Agra in 1840 and at Constantinople in 1859. In the first few years of this renewed missionary activity at Constantinople hopes were of the brightest. Many Turks showed receptivity toward the doctrines of Christianity. But soon violent attacks were made against Christian missions in Constantinople. The missionaries were imprisoned and, when liberated through the efforts of the British Government, open propagandism was once for all forbidden by the Porte. The mission never fully recovered from the blow it had received. Koelle remained in the service of the C.M.S. until 1877, and after retiring from active service lived quietly in Constantinople, trying to win his neighbours, but with only small success.

An event which occurred in 1879 in connection with this. mission caused a great commotion in Europe. Dr. Koelle was secretly translating the Book of Common Prayer into Turkish, with the help of a very distinguished Ulema, Ahmed Tewfik (baptised John Tewfik), a professor and lecturer in leading mosques. Suddenly both were thrown into prison by the police. A naval demonstration, accompanied by a stern ultimatum from the English Prime Minister, Lord Beaconsfield, was required to effect the alteration of the sentence of death on Ahmed Tewfik to banishment to Scio. Tewfik escaped, later on, to London, where his baptism in 1881 created a sensation.

Koelle’s translation was printed by the S.P.C.K. in 1883. 47, 786 pages, demy 8vo. Long lines; rubricated throughout, with red ruled border. The version was accurate and yet idiomatic, for Koelle was one of the greatest linguists on the C.M.S.’s rolls of missionaries. The transliterated title reads:

* Du ’ai ’Ūmūmī Kitābī | dir kī | Inkilterā Kilīsāsīnin ’Ādat ve Tarīkī uzere ’Ūmūm i ’Ibadat | Du’ālarī īla Ramzin i mafrūzīnin Jjrasī ūsulinī | va Kilīsānin sa’ir āyīn va Rūsūminī, | Hāwī dir | va būnin īla barābar | Kilīsalarda ya hālī īla va ya makām īla kara’atī murattab oldīghī wajh ūzere. | Zabūrī ya’nī mazāmīr Dāwūdī. | va Apisīop va Pāpās va Shammaslarīn | Ta’yīn va Tanzim va Taķdīsin shakl va suratinī | va otuz toķuz ’adad ’aķa’īd Diniyya yī | jāmi’dir.

This would be in English translation: “It is the Book of Common Prayer, which contains common prayer and the method of the administration of the canonical requirements, and other rites and ceremonies of the Church, according to the custom and usage of the Church of England. And it also includes the Psalter or Psalms of David, arranged so as to be read or sung in the churches. Also the form of the consecration, ordination and ordering of Bishops, Priests and Deacons. And the Thirty-nine Articles of Faith[1].


Griffiths 183:4

[1] For transliteration and translation of this title and a few more of the Near-Eastern group I am indebted to Professor Abraham Yohannan, Ph.D., of Columbia University, New York, a priest in the diocese of New York.
” It is to be regretted that there has been a divergence in language among the modern Armenians. Only a few, even among the clergy, understand the difficult classical Armenian. In Modern Armenian there are two dialects which differ considerably, the Eastern, or Ararat dialect, and the Western[2]. Many have altogether given up the use of their native tongue. In many parts of the eastern highlands Kurdish has become the prevalent language. Still greater is the number of those who have adopted Turkish, which, however, with the inconsistency peculiar to many Orientals, who retain their written characters longer than their language itself, they write in Armenian script. This Armeno-Turkish has developed into a separate mixed dialect”[3].

[2] See Chap. XXII, “The Armenian Translation.”

[3] Richter, A History of Protestant Missions in the Near East. 1910, p. 45.

In this mixed dialect portions of the Prayer Book were translated by Mëgërdich Shahanian, who had been Armenian bishop of Aintab, in Cilicia, and joined the Anglican Church in connection with the vigorous Protestant propaganda promoted by Bishop Gobat of Jerusalem in 1863. Mëgërdich succeeded in attracting a good many members to his congregation, for whom primarily his translation was made. It appeared in 1880 from the press of the S.P.C.K., Gilbert and Rivington, printers, London. 150 pages, 16mo. Its title, in transliteration, reads:

* Ingilteranin va Irlandarin | Birlashmish kilisalarīnin | sabah va akhsham | Duwalarinin | va | Surp haghortutyunin | Vaptīzin Istinta~in Troshmun Kā’idalarī | Inglizjadan Shāhāniān Gerabadiv Migirdich ark Yeblsūn alī īla Turkchaya tarjuma olmushdur. | London. | Kristian Nalijshirkatinin hūmmatī | īla Tab ’Olūndū. | 1880.

“The Morning and Evening Prayers of the United Churches of England and Ireland. And the forms of the Holy Communion, Baptism, Catechism and Confirmation. They are translated from English into Turkish by Shahanian, under the direction of the venerable Ark Yeblsun. London: Under the auspices of Christian Knowledge Society.”

Of the translator the late Bishop Gobat says:

”My fourth missionary is my dear brother Megherditsch, formerly an Archbishop of the Armenian Church. For the last five years he has had the charge of the Protestant Episcopal congregation at Aintab, where, I believe, he was born and where for twelve years he held the office of Bishop. Besides discharging the duties of his pastoral office, Archbishop Megherditsch maintains an extensive correspondence with a great number of priests who are dissatisfied with the state of their own church, and who, with their congregations, would like to follow his example and join the English Church. . . . “[4]





Griffiths 183:3

[4] Samuel Cobat, Bishop of Jerusalem, His Life and Work, New York, 1888, pp. 360, 361 ; also ibid., pp. 380-382, 387, 388.



THE Armenian language belongs to the Iranic branch of the Aryan family of languages. Modern Armenian has dropped many of the older forms and constructions and contains Persian and Turkish roots and idioms. It is divided into (1) Eastern or Ararat, spoken in the neighbourhood of Tiflis, in Persia and in India, and (2) Western or Constantinople, spoken in Constantinople and in Asia Minor, and differing more widely than the Eastern from the ancient form of the language.

A version of a portion of the Liturgy into Eastern Armenian, by Johannes Ardall, a young Armenian resident of Calcutta, was published by Bishop’s College, Calcutta, in 1827, 8vo. It was revised “by men of dignity and station” in the Armenian Church.

not listed by Griffiths


Twenty years later the Right Rev. H. Southgate superintended the translation and publication of an edition into the western dialect, which was printed in 1847 by the S.P.C.K. at Constantinople. (64), 822 pages, 8vo.

Horatio Southgate was born in Portland, Maine, U.S.A., July 5, 1812. He was a Congregationalist, and studied for several years at Andover Theological Seminary for the Congregational ministry. In 1834 he applied for Orders in the Episcopal Church, and was confirmed in October of the same year. He was ordered deacon in Trinity Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1835, and soon after appointed by the Foreign Committee of the Board of Missions to make an investigation of the state of Mohammedanism in Turkey !and Persia. He sailed from New York in 1836, and was occupied for five years in this field of research. He was ordained priest in 1839, and appointed missionary to Constantinople the following year, serving for four years in that capacity, during which time he made a tour through Mesopotamia. The results he published in a Narrative of a Tour through Armenia, Kurdistan, Persia, and Mesopotamia. 2 volumes. New York, 1840. The Episcopal Church having resolved at that time to send henceforth bishops into the foreign missionary field, Dr. Southgate was consecrated bishop for the dominions and dependencies of the Sultan in Turkey, in St. Peter’s Church, Philadelphia, Pa., October 26, 1844. In the following year he returned to Constantinople, and was occupied in the performance of the duties of his office until 1849. He then returned to the United States and offered his resignation, which was accepted by the House of Bishops in 1850. From 1850 until 1872 he held several rectorships, retiring in the latter year from active work. He died in Astoria, on Long Island, April 11, 1894.


Griffiths 9:1 (1847, reissued 1854)

Southgate’s edition was revised and re-issued, with some corrections by Charles Rieu, in 1854. Thirteen years later — in 1867 — an entirely revised edition was published by the S.P.C.K., the revision being made by Professor Rieu. (64), 822 pages, fcap. 8vo. Printed in long lines, with headings, etc., in Armenian.

The transliterated title of this version reads:

* Girk | Hasaragats Aghotits | yev | Khorhurtneru matagararutian | yev yegeghetsvo ūrish | Avaroghutyunnerun yev dzeserūn | ist sovorutian Āngghio | yev Irlandio miatsial | Yegeghetsuyn. | Miangamain Daoti | markareyin saghmosnerū | yev | Yepisgoposnerū Kahanannerū | yev Sarkavaknerū | Tsernadrutian Gargavoroutian | yev Kahanayagordzutian | tseve yev Yeghanage. | Kristoniagan Gidutiune Harajatsūnogh | Jngerutian Artiambke Tibagirwadz. | London. | 1867.

A literal translation reads: “The Book of Common Prayer and of the Administration of the Sacraments, and of other ceremonies and rites, according to the Use of the United Churches of England and Ireland. Together with the Psalms of the Prophet David. And the form and manner of consecration, ordination and ordering of Bishops, Priests and Deacons. Under the auspices of the S.P.C.K. London: 1867.”

Charles Pierre Henri Rieu (1820-1902) was professor of Arabic and Persian in University College, London; later On keeper of the Oriental manuscripts in the British :Museum, and from 1894 until his death — March 19, 1902 — professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge, succeeding William Robertson Smith (1846-94).

For the use of his congregation, consisting of Armenians, Syrians and other representatives of the Near East, Professor Yohannan, of Columbia University, in the City of New York, prepared and printed in 1892 an Armenian translation of the Order of the Evening Service of the Episcopal Church, entitled Garg | Yeregoyan Bashdamunki | Yebisgobagan Yegeghetso. (12) pages, I2mo.

For his Syriac community the same translator published in 1904 Takhsa | Dashuta dramsha Akh | Riza dita dspiskopeta dAmerica. | Mpushkabe Awraham Yokhannan. New York, 1904, i.e., “The Order of the Evening Prayer, according to the custom of the Episcopal Church of America. Translated by Abraham Yohannan.” 6 pages, 12mo.

This, according to a statement of the translator, is the only modern Syriac translation of any portion of the Prayer Book.



Griffiths 9:2

none of these are listed by Griffiths






THE only Amharic translation of the Book of Common Prayer was printed in 1842 by Richard Watts for the S.P.C.K. It is a volume of (34), 522 pages, demy 8vo, printed in long lines. The reverse of leaf 1 (i.e., p. 2) contains the Latin title:

*Liturgia, | seu | Liber Precum Communium, | et | Administrationis Sacramentorum, | aliorumque Rituum et Cæremoniarum ecc1esire, | juxta usum | Ecc1esiæ Anglicanæ et Hibernicæ: | unà cum Psalterio, seu Libro Psalmorum, | cui accedit | Forma et modus creandi, ordinandi, et consecrandil episcopos, presbyteros et diaconos, | Amharice. | Opera et studio | Caroli Gulielmi Isenberg.! Londini: | Impressit Ricardus Watts, | imp ens is Societatis ad cognitionem Christianam | promovendam institutæ. | MDCCCXLII |

Griffiths 6:1


Facing the Latin title is the Amharic title, in lines alternately red and black.

Karl Wilhelm Isenberg was born in Barmen, Germany, September 5, 1806, and died at Stuttgart, October 10, 1864. He was the son of pious, God-fearing parents, and from early youth had a longing for the vocation of a foreign missionary. But he was not able to realize this wish until some time after he had learned the trade of a tinsmith. On December 8, 1824, he enfered the Basle Mission House as a student. He completed his course and attended at the same time lectures in the University of Basle. He then proceeded to Berlin and studied exegesis under Neander, Hengstenberg and others, intending to use this additional information in the work of translating the Bible into foreign languages. Returning to Basle, he taught in his alma mater for a brief period, and was then employed by the C.M.S. as a translator for the Malta auxiliary. He was ordained in England. The sudden death of Christian Kugler in Abyssinia left Gobat there alone, and Isenberg was sent to him as his colleague. Sickness compelled Gobat soon to retire and Blumhardt was sent to take his place. After a three years’ stay in Abyssinia the missionaries were banished from the country by the hostile authorities. Isenberg and Krapf, who had also worked there, went to Shoa, at the invitation of King Sahela Salassie. In 1840 Isenberg came to London to carry through the press a number of books translated by him into Amharic. Among them was the Book of Common Prayer. The publications opened up the study of Amharic in Europe. Upon his return he found himself barred from re-entering Shoa, and had to give up the mission.

The society then sent him to Bombay. Here he engaged in teaching and in mission work, for which purpose he studied Marāthī. Arduous work and close confinement broke his health, so that in 1852 he was obliged for a time to return to Europe. In r854 he went out again to Bombay, where for ten years he laboured among the small native congregations. Ill, he returned to Germany in 1864, and died there soon after his arrival.

The Psalter contained in Isenberg’s translation of the Prayer Book was revised by Johann Martin Flad, of the London Jews Society. It was printed in 1872 at Basle at the expense of the S.P.C.K. and the Bible societies of Stuttgart and Basle.

Associated with Isenberg’s missionary and literary work was his friend and fellow-student, Krapf, one of the great missionaries of the nineteenth century.

Johann Ludwig Krapf was born at Derendingen, near Tübingen, Würtemberg, January 11, 1810. He was educated at the Basle Mission House and sent by the C.M.S. to join the Abyssinian Mission begun by Samuel Gobat (1799-1879), in r830, and conducted by Isenberg and Blumhardt. Soon after his arrival the missionaries were expelled through the hostile influence of two French Roman Catholic priests. Invited by the king of Shoa to visit his country, Krapf left Suez with Isenberg in 1839. While Isenberg went to England as stated above, Krapf remained and studied the Galla language, labouring at the same time among the Abyssinians. His report of two journeys among the Gallas was favourably received by the C.M.S., and their committee was impressed with the providential opening both in Abyssinia and among the heathen Galla tribes, so that they resolved to form the Abyssinians into a new mission, to be called the East African Mission. Having thus received the approval of the committee, Krapf sailed with his wife for the Zanzibar coast from Aden, landing January 3, 1844, at Mombasa, which he selected as the site of his mission. Here he devoted himself with zeal to the work of his mission, especially to the study of the languages of the region

In 1846 he was joined by Johann Rebmann (r820-76), the discoverer of the Kilimanjaro (May, 1848), and together they established the mission station at Kisulutini, in the Rabai district.

In later years Krapf established and directed the remarkable “Pilgrim Mission,” in connection with the St. Chrischona Institute, which was to begin the “chain of missions” from the North instead of from the East. Twelve stations were planned, from Alexandria to the boundary of Abyssinia, each of which was to bear the name of one of the apostles and to be manned by laymen, known as “pilgrims,” the whole route being called “the Apostles’ Road.” The fall of King Theodore of Abyssinia in 1865 put an end to the Abyssinian Mission.

In 1855 he returned to Europe, and though he went twice again to Africa on temporary missions, the great work of his later years was linguistic. He died at Kornthal, in Würtemberg, November 26, 1881[1].


“Dr. Ludwig Krapf,” says Sir Harry Johnston, in The Colonization of Africa, p. 149, “is justly a great name in African exploration, African philology, and African Christianity”[2].

Isenberg, Krapf and their colleague Gobat, all three originally craftsmen, and educated in the same institution, formed a most remarkable combination. Gobat was the church statesman, who with tact and energy maintained the cause of his Divine calling before the superior authorities of the church and the mighty in the land, being the strongest character of the three, in spite of his youthfulness. Isenberg was the plodding German man of letters, whose chief joy it was to study foreign languages, write grammars and schoolbooks and lay the foundation of a Protestant literature. Krapf was the man of bold projects, full of brilliant ideas and far-reaching plans. First he fascinated the Protestant public with the scheme of the Apostles’ Road, and later with the similar plan of establishing a chain of missions right across Africa, from east to west, from Mombasa to Yoruba. God led all three of them later in a marvellous way. Gobat, as bishop of Jerusalem, was to develop the full weight of his personality; Isenberg went to India as a missionary and devoted his talents to further study and to educational work; Krapf became the enthusiastic pioneer of the route from the east coast of Africa into the pathless interior[3].



[1] See Johann Ludwig Krapf, Travels, Researches and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa; with Appendix by E. G. Ravenstein. (London: Trübner, 1860.) ii, 566 pp.; illustrations, portraits, maps; 8vo. — W. von Claus, Johann Ludwig Krapf; Basle, 1882; vi, 224 pp.; portrait; 8vo. On Rabai and the work of Krapf and of his successors see also O’Rorke, African Missions, Chap. XI.

[2] We fully agree with Sir Harry’s statement, ibid., p. 150, that the Church Missionary Society “stands out conspicuous for the magnificent philological work done by its agents in Africa. Especially notable among them have been Dr. S. W. Koelle, Mr. Reichart, the Rev. James Frederic Schon, Bishop Crowther, Krapf, Rebmann and J. T. Last.” And p. 157: “To the Universities’ Mission is due much valuable linguistic work on the part of the late Bishop Steere, Mr. Madan, and the late Bishop of Likoma (better known as Archdeacon Chauncey Maples).”


[3] See Richter, loco cit., page 379.



SAMUEL LEE, the well-known Orientalist, was born in 1783, and died in 1852. While a carpenter’s apprentice he had acquired a knowledge of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Persian and Hindustani before he was twenty-five years of age. He became known to Dr. Claudius Buchanan, who introduced him to the Rev. Josiah Pratt, secretary of the C.M.S. Lee was sent to Cambridge University at the expense of the society, where he quickly made his mark as a scholar, was for some years employed by the committee of the C.M.S., and called “the Society’s Orientalist.” He became professor of Arabic in Cambridge in 1819, and regius professor of Hebrew in 1831. His publications were numerous, but all evince learning and literary ability of a high order.

In 1817 and 1818 he superintended the publication of Henry Martyn’s translation of the Prayer Book into Hindûstâni. In 1828 he published, together with Mirza Muhammad Ibrahim, teacher of Persian at the. East India College, Haileybury: Liturgiæ Ecc1esiæ Anglicanæ partes prcecipuæ, scilicet Preces Matutinæ et Vespertinæ, Ordo administrandi Cœnam Domini et Ordo Baptismi Publici, in linguam Persicam traductæ . . . Londini: Prayer-Book and Homily Society, 1828. 72 pages, 12mo.

Griffiths 134:1


The next translation was the work of Ernst Trumpp. He was born at Ilsfeld, near Besigheim, in Würtemberg, March 13, 1828. While a student of theology at Tübingen he pursued with zeal Sanskrit and Arabic under professors Rudolf von Roth and Heinrich Ewald. Political conditions induced him, in 1849, to go to England, where, as assistant in the library of the East India House, he devoted much time to the study of Persian and the modern dialects of India. When, in 1852, the C.M.S. wanted a scholar who would be able to make these dialects grammatically and lexicographically more accessible to missionaries, as well as to scholars in general, Trumpp was the unanimous choice of the committee. He accepted gladly, all his desires tending toward just such work as mapped out by the committee. At Karachi (Kurrachee), British India, he took up with a learned Persian the study of Modern Persian, which enabled him to publish for his society a new Persian translation of Portions of the Book of Common Prayer. London; S.P.C.K., 1866. His health had compelled him to leave India in 1860; but he returned there in 1870 to prepare for the English Government an edition of the Adi Granth, the liturgy of the Sikhs. He came back to England in 1872, and two years later was called to the University of Munich as professor of Oriental languages. Here he died in 1885. Trumpp was not only a great Orientalist, but also a devout Christian who placed all his great learning and accurate scholarship at the service of the mission cause.
Griffiths 134:3
Some eight years after Trumpp’s translation appeared another by the Rev. Canon George Ledgard, of Bombay. He had graduated from St. Augustine’s College, at Canterbury, in 1859, was ordered deacon in 1863, and ordained priest in 1864. From 1863 until 1906 he was a S.P.G. missionary to Hindustani-speaking natives in Bombay, and hon. canon of the Bombay Cathedral from 1901-06. In the latter year he retired after more than forty years of faithful service.
Griffiths 134:4 (1874)
The latest translation appears to be that of Canon Robert Bruce. Bruce graduated A.B. from Trinity College, Dublin, in 1857, was ordered deacon and ordained priest in 1858. From 1858 until 1869 he was a C.M.S. missioner in Northern India, the Punjab, and at Julfa, Persia, from 1869-93. From 1895-96 he was professor of Persian in University College, London. His Persian translation of the Liturgy appeared first in 1882, published by the S.P.C.K. An 1898 edition, 171 pages, fcap. 8vo, is entitled;

* Kitāb i Namāznāmah ’i ‘Āmi | Kilīsāi Muķaddas i Inglistān | Dar Jrān | kī ba Dast als:al al-‘ibād Robert Bruce | Kashīsh i Inglīs Tarjumah shud. | Va ba nafakah ’i Jamā‘at i Mūta’ayin | barāī | Intishār i ’Ūlūm va fūnūn i Dīn | i Masīhī dar Dār is-Saltanat Landan | Mahmiyyah i hilya tab’ pushīd. | ba tārikh i ۳۱ Māh i March, sana’i ۱۸۹۸ | Masīhiyyah.

A literal translation reads as follows: The Book of Common Prayer | of the Holy Church of England | in Persia, | which has been translated by the least of the servants (of God), Robert Bruce, the English priest. | And by the expenses of the congregation appointed | for disseminating the knowledge of the | Christian religion was published in the beautiful Metropolis, City of London | on the 31st of the month of March, Christian year, 1898.

It was this zealous missionary who really forced the hand of the C.M.S. to invade Persia in the name of the Lord. Recognising the importance of the Persian language for intercourse with the higher classes on the Afghan frontier, he obtained leave when returning to India, in 1869, after his first furlough, to go via Persia and spend a year there. He proceeded to the old capital, Ispahan, and took up his residence at Julfa, the Armenian quarter of the capital, in which Christians were allowed to live. Providential circumstances were gradually opening the way for the future Persian Mission, which was formally adopted in 1875. Dr. Bruce retired from the Persian work in 1893, after thirty-five years of most valuable service. According to the latest issue of Crockford, he is still living as rector of Little Dean, Gloucester, England.





PA(U)SHTU is the language of some 5,000,000 people inhabiting Afghanistan and adjacent territory. It is also called the Afghan language or Afghani. It belongs to the East Iranian branch of languages, a modern representative of the ancient “Medic” language, of which the Avesta is the sole surviving literary monument. It is the lingua franca for a large area, and is written with Arabic characters modified by adding dots, as in Persian, and in a few cases in a fashion peculiar to Pashtu.


Griffiths 134:4 (1882, reissued 1889, 1904)

The Liturgy was translated into this language by the Rev. Dr. Jukes, and published by the S.P.C.K. in 1893. (28), 329, (3) pages, fcap. 8vo. The text, printed by photography, has two columns to the page, and is entirely in Pashtu. The title-page reads:

* Kitāb | da ‘Amo Dua’o | o | da Sacremantano ta‘mīl | o | da Kilīsīyē da Nūro Rasmuno o | Dasturuno | chih pah kash da zabur kitāb o Mas’alī da Dīn | shāmlī dī | Muāfiķ da tārīķī da Kilīsīy? da Inglistān | Lah Tarafah da Kristyan Nālij sosaītī neh. | Landan. |

i.e., The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of Sacraments, and of other customs and usages of the Church. It contains also the Book of Psalms and the questions of religion, according to the method of the Church of England. By the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London.

Worthington Jukes was for fifteen years a C.M.S. missioner at Peshawar. He is a B.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1871; M.A., 1874; was ordered deacon for colonial service in 1872 by the bishop of London, and ordained priest at Calcutta in 1874. From 1872-74 he was missionary at Amritsar, and thence transferred to Peshawar, whence he resigned in 1890. From 1899-1907 he was rural dean of Cadbury. At present he is rector of Shobrooke, Crediton. Dr. Jukes, in conjunction with his colleague of the C.M.S., the Rev. Thomas Patrick Hughes, revised also the translation of the New Testament, of the Pentateuch, and of the Psalms into Pashtu (1890, 91). The revision was made under the direction of the Right Rev. Thomas Valpy French, bishop of Lahore.




Griffiths 133:1



ANDREE, C. T. Forschungsreisen in Arabien und Ost-Afrika nach den Entdeckungen von Burton, Speke, Krapf, Rebmann, Erhardt und anderen. Leipzig, ’61. 2 vols. Illus. Maps. Plates. 8vo.

ARPEE, L. The Armenian Awakening. A history of the Armenian Church, 1802-1860. Chicago, ’09.

British Museum, London. Library. Catalogue of Arabic Books. By A. G. ELLIS. Lo. ’94, ’01. 2 vols. 4to.

CLAUS, W. VON. Johann Ludwig Krapf. Basle, ’82. Portrait. 8vo.

DE LE ROI, J. F. A. Die Evangelische Christenheit und die Judea in der Zeit des Zwiespalts in der Christlichen Lebensanschauung unter den Völkern. Berlin, ’go. 3 vols. [Schriften des Institutum Judaicum. 9.] 8vo.

—— Geschichte der Evangelischen Judenmission seit Entstehung des neueren Judentums. 2te Ausgabe. Leipzig, ’98. 8vo.

—— M. S. Alexander, ev. Bischof von Jerusalem. Leipzig, ’97. 8vo ..

FORDER, A. With the Arabs in Tent and Town. An account of missionary work, life and experience in Moab and Edom, and the first missionary journey into Arabia from the north. 3rd edition. Lo. [’02?]. Portrait. Plates. Map. Sm. 8vo.

GIDNEY, W. T. Biographies of eminent Hebrew Christians. IV. Bishop Alexander. Lo. ’03. Portrait. 24mo.

—— History of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews. Lo. ’08. Portraits. 8vo. — The only complete history of the Society.

GOBAT, SAMUEL. Journal of Three Years’ Residence in Abyssinia. . . . Accompanied with a biographical sketch of Bishop Gobat, by Robert Baird. N.Y. ’51. 12mo.

—— Samuel Gobat, Bishop of Jerusalem. His life and work. A biographical sketch, drawn. chiefly from his own journals. N.Y. ’85. Illus. Portraits. 12mo.

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