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THE Occasional Services differ from the foregoing in that they are not properly speaking independent services but are designed wherever it is possible to be combined with the Holy Communion. This character will appear as they are discussed one by one in order.

SECT. I. — Solemnization of Matrimony.

Distinguishing feature.

The essence of Matrimony1 is a natural compact not a religious ceremony. The blessing pronounced upon a marriage is subordinate to the contract made by the parties, and therefore, though religious rites have habitually accompanied the marriage ceremonies, they are always only secondary, and not essential to the matrimonial bond: but on the other hand a contract can hardly be called Holy Matrimony or Christian Marriage, which is not sealed by the Church’s blessing. According to the old customs of Rome in heathen times a sacrifice accompanied the legal transactions of marriage: when Christian Matrimony began the Christian Sacrifice of The Eucharist with a solemn benediction took the place of the heathen rites, but otherwise the old transactions went on and continue down to the present time.

They fell into two parts, sometimes kept distinct and sometimes joined; first came (1) the Sponsalia or betrothal, at which the documents were signed and four symbolical ceremonies took place :— (a) the giving of presents (arrhae) or. earnests representing the marriage settlement, (b) the kiss, (c) the ring, (d) the joining of hands: then followed (2) the wedding itself according to the ancient rites called Confarreatio.2 The principal features of this were these; the bridegroom and bride in nuptial attire, both of them wearing crowns and the bride veiled with the nuptial veil, took part in the sacrifices, and especially partook in common of the panis farreus or sacrificial cake made for the purpose by the Vestal Virgins.

Marriage primarily a natural compact; secondarily religious.


Roman marriage.

Already in the time of S. Ignatius it was recognised that the marriage of Christians needs the recognition of the Bishop,3 and but little transformation was needed to make the foregoing ceremonies acceptable to the Christian conscience. The references to the rites of marriage in early Christian writers are few: but such as there are bear witness to the adoption of the customs of the old Roman law. Thus Tertullian speaks of the happiness of a marriage which is made by the Church, and confirmed by the Holy Sacrifice, and sealed by the Blessing, and reported by the angels, and ratified by the Father:4 and elsewhere he speaks of the veil, the kiss; and the joining of hands.5
Early Christian custom.
No fuller description of the Western Rites6 is forthcoming till the Reply of Pope Nicholas I. to the Bulgarians, given in 866, which shows the continuance of the old customs, and forms a link between the early days and the later mediæval Service-books.7
Later evidence.

As to the nuptial mass, which at least from Tertullian’s time took the place of the pagan sacrifices, it is found in the three early Roman Sacramentaries : in each case besides the usual collects, a special preface8 and Hanc igitur clause were provided for the Canon, and further a form of nuptial Benediction, with collect prefixed, was inserted after the consecration: the Benediction, which corresponds to the old Roman ceremony of the veiling of the Bride, was originally in the form of a eucharistic prayer,9 prefaced by the Salutation and Sursum corda. The Sacramentaries10 vary one from another, and in particular the Benediction in the Gregorian differs from that which figures in the other two, but incorporates towards the end a number of its phrases.11

There is variation also in the other component parts: no lessons for the nuptial Mass are provided in the earliest forms of the Comes, and consequently, while the same Epistle is found in general use, different Gospels were adopted, and e. g. Sarum differs from York. No special chants were provided for a marriage in the old Antiphonal, and in consequence here again there is considerable variation.


In England the usual custom was to take the Votive Mass of the Trinity as the Mass of Marriage, and to use it in conjunction with the special lessons and prayers provided by the Comes and the Sacramentary, but dropping the old Hanc igitur clause and substituting the Trinity Preface in the place of the old special Preface:12 but even in this there was no uniformity:13 Sarum, Hereford and York all differed in details; and there. were also other less defined local differences.14
and English custom.
Setting these. aside and taking the Sarum service as representative of all, it is to be observed that it embodies (i) the old Roman ceremony of Espousal, followed by (ii) the Benediction and (iii) the nuptial Mass: this arrangement was closely followed in the First Prayer Book. The change was here all the less because it had long been customary to conduct a large part of the service in the vernacular: moreover the changes made subsequent to 1549 in the English service have been few and small, so that a simple comparison of the First Prayer Book with the Sarum service will put the reader in possession of all the main points of interest.
The Sarum Service and the First Prayer Book.

The Latin service15 began at the Church door16 with the following final publication of banns, the parties: standing there, the man at the right hand of the woman.17

Lo brethren we are comen here before God and his angels and all his halowes in the face and presence of our moder holy Chyrche for to couple and to knyt these two bodyes togyder, that is to saye of this man and of this woman, that they be from this tyme forthe but one bodye and two soules in the fayth and lawe of God and holy Chyrche, for to deserve everlastynge lyfe, what somever that they have done here before.’

Final warning,
This was enlarged in 1549 by the addition of an explanation of the purpose of marriage:18 and then followed the address to the parties, also following the old lines.

’I charge you on Goddes behalfe and holy Chirche that, if there be any of you that can say any thynge why these two may not lawfully be wedded togyder at this tyme, say it nowe outher pryuely or appertly in helpynge of your soules and theirs bothe. Also I charge you boythe and eyther be your selfe as ye will answer before God at the day of dome that yf there be any thinge done pryuely or openly betwene yourselfe, or that ye know any lawfull lettyng why that ye may nat be wedded togyder at this tyme say it nowe, or we do any more to this mater.’

The rubric dealing with any case where any impediment was alleged also is continued in the new service.19

and address.
The espousal followed also in the vernacular:20 first the question addressed to each in turn in slightly varying form.

    ‘N. Wylt thou have this woman to thy wyfe and love her and wirschipe her [to the woman and to be buxum to him, luf hym, obeye to him’ and wirschipe hym, serve hym] and kepe her in syknes and in helthe and in all other degrese be to her as husbande sholde be to his wyfe, and all other forsake for her, and holde thee only to her to thy lyves ende?’
    Ans. ‘I will.’

The following question came into the English service though there is no sign of it in the Sarum Manual but only in that of York ‘Who gyves me this wyfe?’

The Espousal.

Then the plighting of troth is given in both uses in English: the Sarum form lies closer to that of 1549.

’I N. take thee N. to my wedded wife [husband] to have and to hold from this day forward for better for worse, for richer for poorer, in sickness and in health, [to be bonere and buxum21 in bed and at the board] till death us departe, if holy Church it will ordain; and, thereto I plight thee my troth.’

When each of the parties had been plighted, the ring with gold and silver were produced by the bridegroom and there followed the blessing of the ring in Latin. This blessing was omitted in 1549 but the ‘tokens of spousage’ were still retained, only to be superseded in 1552 by the paying of ‘the accustomed duty to the Priest and Clerk.’ The formula of the ring ran thus:

’With this ring I thee wed, this gold and silver I thee give, and with my body I thee worship,22 and with all my worldly chattels thee endow?’

And while the invocation of the Holy Trinity was said, the ring was placed upon the thumb and fingers of the bride’s right hand in order, and finally left upon her fourth finger. This ceremony was not expressly directed in 1549 or since, but the wording of the rubric referred to it and seemed to expect its continuance.23

The closing part of the Espousal in the Latin service consisted of (i) a short blessing, (ii) part of a psalm, (iii) suffrages leading up to (iv) a collect and (v) a blessing. In the English service alterations were made: (i) a new prayer of the ring was inserted, based upon the language of the old collects24 for the blessing of the ring,25 but turned into a blessing of the bride and bridegroom instead;26 and the man was directed to put the ring at once on the fourth finger of the woman’s left hand instead of following the old custom: (ii) a solemn joining of hands and (iii) a pronouncement of union were introduced next from the service in the Consultation:27 finally (iv) the Espousal closed with the blessing taken from the Latin service.28 The joining of hands with its formula and the pronouncement of the union were old customs in many places abroad, but they seem not to have been current in England till they came in to the Prayer Book through the medium of the Consultation.29

The Plighting.
The second part of the service, the Nuptiæ or wedding proper, now follows, comprising the benedictory prayers:30 the Prayer Book follows very closely the lines of the old service. (i) The psalm was retained, to be sung as the bridal procession moves into the choir,31 and the bride and bridegroom take their place, kneeling before the Lord’s Table; (ii) The suffrages follow; (iii) the two first Latin prayers were compressed into one English prayer; (iv) the prayer for fruitfulness follows the old lines; but before (vi) the final blessing32 there is interpolated in the English service (v) a third English Collect which represents the old nuptial benediction of the early sacramentaries which took place after the Canon in the nuptial Mass33: it was transferred to the present position in 1549 so that all the special ceremonies and prayers of Matrimony might be kept together and be distinct from the Eucharist, which was to be celebrated at the close of the marriage ceremonies in its usual form. The contents and scope of the prayer were at the same time altered. The old prayer had been designed as a solemn blessing especially of the Bride, while she was covered with the veil, which, according to Roman custom even in pagan times, was the symbol of her marriage. Indeed the whole ceremony, like the Mass itself, had the Bride and not the Bridegroom in view and was known as the Velatio nuptialis. In later times when the old Roman view was no longer current, the veiling of the Bride was so far modified that a veil or canopy was held over both Bride and Bridegroom, but the prayers still remained unaltered. The English Prayer Book carried the same·line of development a stage further and altered the prayer so as to make it include the Bridegroom as well as the Bride; and thus to be both more suitable to its altered position and more agreeable to the altered ideas.
The wedding.
The nuptial Mass thus lost its special significance in 1549: it was still ordered that ‘The new married persons, the same day of their Marriage, must receive the Holy Communion:34 but this was altered in 1661, in compliance with the objection of the Presbyterians,35 or more probably from a conviction that many persons would be married according to the rites of the Church, who were far from being in real communion with it.36

The Mass.

The Address which was provided in 1549 is of the nature of a homily, showing the relative duties of married persons. Until 1661 it was to be used as the homily in the Communion Service when no other took its place: and the present practice is an adaptation of this to the altered conditions.

The service ends abruptly because it is in fact incomplete and should be followed by the Holy Communion.37 In the Irish Prayer Book some prayers are added which give a false idea of completeness: in the American Book there is no proper nuptial Benediction at all but only the first part of the service consisting of the Espousal.

The Address.
One or two general points remain which demand notice. First with regard to the occasion of a marriage it is to be observed that matrimony, being an occasion of rejoicing, as early as the fourth century was forbidden, together with other festivities, during the solemn fast of Lent;38 and in the eleventh century at certain other seasons also, such as Advent and Rogation-tide. No such prohibition has been inserted in the Prayer Book,39 but it still forms part of the Law of the Church, in spite of two attempts made in parliament to alter it. Dispensations may be granted by the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury.40 But in practice both the law and the dispensing power have been much ignored, though custom has continued to discountenance marriage in Lent. Further the ceremony may only take place within certain hours of the day so that publicity may be ensured.
Marriages forbidden at certain seasons.
The rubrics of the Publication of Banns,41 in the earlier Prayer Books, directed that they should asked three several Sundays, or Holy Days, in the time of service, the people being present, after the accustomed manner.42 In 1661 the time of service was explained to be immediately before the sentences of the Offertory;43 and the form was also provided in which it should be done. In modern Prayer Books the rubric is often wrongly printed because the printers have altered it without authority on a mistaken interpretation of two Marriage Acts of later date.44 These do not supersede but only supplement the rubric by providing for the publication of Banns in cases where there is no celebration of the Communion Service.
Publication of Banns.

The Table of Prohibited Degrees forms no proper part of the Prayer Book but in conjunction with the XXXIX Articles of Religion it is often appended to the book and it deserves mention here. It was issued by Archbishop Parker in 1563 and sanctioned by the 99th Canon of 1603. It rests upon two broad principles: (i) that affinity, or relationship by marriage, is as much a bar to matrimony as consanguinity or relationship by blood, since man and wife are one flesh; (ii) that marriage is not allowable within three degrees of relationship: e.g. an uncle and niece may not marry being related in the third degree since the grandparent of one is the parent of the other: but first cousins may legally marry being related in the fourth degree.45

In some places civil law has broken in upon this principle and made exceptions, e.g., in the case of the marriage of a deceased wife’s sister; but the Church Law still upholds the clear and intelligible principle, and refuses to recognise exceptions.

SECT. II. The Visitation of the Sick.

Prohibited degrees.
The Church has always been zealous in her care for the sick, the dying and the departed. The Apostolical example and the precept46 that the sick man should ‘call for the elders of the Church’ was fully carried out in mediæval times47 and the present Order for the Visitation48 follows closely the lines of the old service in the Sarum Manual.
Mediæval practice.
The old order49 began with the recitation of the penitential psalms and their antiphon on the way to the house, and when it was reached the salutation was given as our Lord ordered.50 In 1549 only one psalm was retained with its antiphon and prescribed for use after the salutation in the sick man’s presence. In 1552 the psalm was omitted and now only the antiphon ‘Remember not’ survives, with a response, which was added in 1661. The suffrages and collects which followed were in the old Order preceded by the sprinkling of Holy Water: this was omitted in the Prayer Book, but the suffrages were retained and two out of the nine collects provided in the Manual. The second of these went through considerable modification in 1552 and 1661.

The Sarum services.


The second division of the service then began which, was designed to help the sick man to acts of faith and repentance especially in view of his communion and unction.51 This was continued in the Prayer Book though the provision for the unction made in 1549 was omitted in 1552. The Latin Manuals contained vernacular forms of exhortation for use at this point52 and a similar provision was made in the Prayer Book. When the man’s faith has been tested he is to be exhorted to charity and restitution, though no form is provided for this as was done in the Latin books.53 Then his conscience is to be satisfied: in the old books it was taken for granted that he would make his confession:54 in the Prayer Book from 1549 onward it was left to his discretion whether he would or not, but in 1661 it was ordered that the Minister should move him to do so, if he felt his conscience troubled by any weighty matter. The form of absolution provided follows the old Latin form;55 and it is noticeable that when in 1661 the responsibility of moving the sick man to confession was laid upon the Minister the responsibility of desiring absolution was laid upon the penitent.56 The declaratory form of absolution is followed in the English as in the Latin by a prayer of absolution: this had been the principal form of absolution in use in the Western Church up to the XIIth century when for the first time a declaratory form of absolution began to be in use. It is found in the Gelasian Sacramentary as the solemn form used on Maundy Thursday at the Reconciliation of the penitents who have been excommunicate since the beginning of Lent.57 With this prayer and two others accompanying it the Latin service of the Visitation ended and the service of Unction followed.
Testing of faith and repentance.
The psalm and antiphon which began that service58 are still retained, and the antiphon is used more or less in its proper way and not altered almost beyond recognition, as it is elsewhere in the Prayer Book.59 Instead of the elaborate unction of the mediaeval service a simple ceremony with a single new prayer and the accustomed psalm were provided in 1549 as an optional addition to the service.60 These were omitted in 1552, and thus the service ended after the antiphon with a form of blessing newly composed and based on scriptural texts.61 This was felt to be inadequate in 1661 and the form of Aaronic blessing62 was added,63 together with four 0ccasional Prayers, For a sick Child; For a sick Person, when there appeareth small hope of recovery; A commendatory Prayer for a sick Person at the point of departure; and A Prayer for Persons troubled in mind and conscience.64

SECT. III. — The Communion of the Sick.

In the absence of any provision for Unction the Communion of the Sick stands alone as the service to which the Office of Visitation leads up.65 In pre-Reformation times this was a very simple matter, for the Holy Sacrament was reserved for the sick according to the universal and primitive custom; also the administration was in the simplest form66 and, according to the custom in later times prevalent, in one kind only.


The rubric of 1549, continuing the practice of Reservation, though with some restriction, directed that, if a sick person was to receive the Communion on the same day in which there was a celebration of the Holy Eucharist in the church, the Priest should reserve at the open Communion so much of the sacrament of the Body and Blood as should serve the sick person, and so many as should communicate with him, if there were any. The service to be used consisted of the general Confession, the Absolution with the Comfortable Words, the distribution of the Sacrament, and the Collect, Almighty and everliving God, we most heartily thank Thee, &c.’

If there was no open Communion on that day, the Curate was directed to visit the sick person afore noon, and to celebrate the Holy Communion in the following form:—

Communion with reserved Sacrament (1549).
’0 praise the Lord, all ye nations, laud Him, all ye people; for His merciful kindness is confirmed towards us, and the truth of the Lord endureth for ever. Glory be to the Father, &c.’
     Lord, have mercy upon us.
    Christ, have mercy upon us. Without any more repetition.
    Lord, have mercy upon us.
    The Priest. The Lord be with you.
    Answer. And with thy spirit.
    Let us pray. Almighty and everlasting God, &c.
    The Epistle. Heb. xii; My son, despise not, &c.
    The Gospel. John v. Verily, verily, &.
    The Preface. The Lord be with you.
    Answer. And with thy spirit.
    Lift up your hearts, &c. Unto the end of the Canon.

If more sick persons were to be visited on the same day, the Curate was ordered to reserve a sufficient portion of the elements from the first consecration and immediately to carry it and minister it unto them.

The Celebration of the Holy Communion for the Sick (1549).
In 1552 the directions for reservation and for celebrating in the sick man’s house were alike omitted: the Collect, Epistle and Gospel were retained, with a rubric authorizing the Curate to ‘minister’ the Holy Communion, provided there were a good number to receive the Communion with the sick person. Thus the Sacrament might be reserved, but no method was prescribed, the Curate was to carry it to the sick man, but he was not sufficiently instructed what service he was to use in administering it.67
The Communion of the Sick (1552).
At the last revision in 1661, the number ‘three, or two at the least,’ was mentioned as requisite to form a company of communicants with the sick person;68 and the direction was given to celebrate the Holy Communion in a shortened form beginning with the special Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, and then passing to the Communion Office at the Address to the Communicants, ‘Ye that do truly and earnestly repent you, &c.’

If the Visitation Service is used at the same time, the Priest ends that service after the Prayer, ‘O most merciful God, &c.; and, instead of the Psalm, proceeds to The Communion of the Sick.69

The shortened Communion of the Sick (1661).

The rubric which points to spiritual communion, as the consolation to be called to the attention of one who is unable to partake of the Sacrament,70 is taken from the ancient office.71

This rubric does not imply that the actual participation of this sacrament is a matter of indifference. Like the other sacrament of Baptism, it must be received where it may be had. But a faithful Christian need not fear separation from the love of Christ, if either by reason of the extremity of sickness, or for want of warning in due time to the Curate, or for lack of company to receive with him, or by any other just impediment, he do not receive the sacrament of Christ’s Body and Blood in his last extremity.72

SECT. IV. — The Burial of the Dead.

Spiritual Communion.
The tender care which the primitive and mediæval Church bestowed upon the departed is a natural sequl of its care for the sick and dying.73 A continuous round of prayer was maintained. During the last agony .psalms and litanies were said, ending with a solemn farewell in the name of the Blessed Trinity, the orders of angels and the company of saints, and a solemn series of petitions to God to deliver the soul of his servant from all dangers.74 After death came the service of Commendation,75 consisting of Psalms with their antiphons, and collects at intervals; and during it the body was prepared for burial. Psalmody again accompanied the carrying of the corpse to the church. Then began the services connected with the Burial; first the Office of the dead (Evensong, Mattins and Lauds),76 then the Requiem Mass,77 then a short form of Commendation and the censing and sprinkling with holy water of the body,78 and lastly the actual Burial Service.79 After the funeral Memorial Services were said, both the Office of the Dead and the Requiem Mass, especially during the month immediately following, and on the anniversary.80
The Mediæval cycle of services.
Compared with this the provision made in the Prayer Book is very meagre. A series of three antiphons represents the procession to the Church: the psalms and lesson, as now placed, may represent the Office of the Dead, the Eucharist has been omitted and its collect transferred to the short service at the grave.
The adaptation in the Prayer Book.
The arrangement of the service has been much changed at the several revisions of the Prayer Book. In 1549, though it represented a great departure from the old lines, it had a character of its own, and consisted of (i) a procession to the church or grave, (ii) the service of actual burial; and to these there were added (iii) a brief form of Office of the Dead, and (iv) a special Eucharist.

I. The priest, meeting the corpse at the church-stile, shall say, or else the priest and clerks shall sing, and so go either in to the church, or towards the grave,
    I am the resurrection, &c.
    I know that my Redeemer, &c.
    We brought nothing, &c.

II. When they come at the grave, whiles the corpse is made ready to be laid into the earth, the priest shall say, or else the priest and clerks shall sing,
    Man that is born of a woman, &c.
    In the midst of life .... to fall from thee.
    Then the priest, casting earth upon the corpse, shall say,
    I commend thy soul to God the Father Almighty, and thy body to the ground, earth to earth, &c.
    Then shall be said or sung,
    I heard a voice from heaven, &c.
    Let us pray. We commend into thy hands of mercy, most merciful Father, the soul of this our, brother departed, N. And his body we commit to the earth, beseeching thine infinite goodness to give us grace to live in thy fear and love, and to die in thy favour: that when the judgment shall come, which Thou hast committed to thy well-beloved Son, both this our brother, and we, may be found acceptable in thy sight, and receive that blessing which thy well-beloved Son shall then pronounce, &c. (as in the present last Collect)
    This Prayer shall also be added.
    Almighty God, we give thee hearty thanks for this thy servant, whom thou hast delivered from the miseries of this wretched world, from the body of death and all temptation, and, as we trust, hast brought his soul, which he committed into thy holy hands, into sure consolation and rest: Grant, we beseech Thee, that at the day of judgment his soul, and all the souls of thy elect departed out of this life, may with us, and we with them, fully receive thy promises, and be made perfect altogether, through the glorious resurrection of thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord.

III. These Psalms, with other suffrages following, are to be said in the church either before or after the burial of the corpse.
    Ps. cxvi., cxxxix., cxlvi.
    Then shall follow this Lesson, 1 Cor. xv. [ver. 20 to end]81
    The Lesson ended, then shall the Priest say,
    Lord, have mercy upon us, &c.
    Our Father, &c.
    Priest. Enter not, O Lord, into judgment with thy servant.
    Answer. For in thy sight no living creature shall be justified.
    Priest. From the gates of hell.
    Answer. Deliver their souls, O Lord.
    Priest. I believe to see the goodness of the Lord.
    Answer. In the land of the living.
    Priest. O Lord, graciously hear my prayer.
    Answer. And let my cry come unto Thee.
    Let us pray. O Lord, with whom do live the spirits of them that be dead; and in whom the souls of them that be elected, after they be delivered from the burden of the flesh, be in joy and felicity:82 Grant unto this thy servant, that the sins which he committed in this world be not imputed unto him, but that he, escaping the gates of hell and the pains of eternal darkness, may ever dwell in the region of light, with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the place where is no weeping, sorrow, nor heaviness; and when that dreadful day of the general resurrection shall come, make him to rise also with the just and righteous, and receive this body again to glory, then made pure and mcorruptible: set him on the right hand of thy Son Jesus Christ, among thy holy and elect, that then he may hear with them these most sweet and comfortable words: Come to me, ye blessed of my Father, possess the kingdom, &c.

IV. The Celebration of the Holy Communion when there is a Burial of the Dead.83
    Introit. Ps. xlii.
    Collect. O merciful God, the Father of our Lord Jesu Christ, who is the resurrection and the life ... who also hath taught us by his holy apostle Paul not to be sorry as men without hope for them that sleep in him: we meekly beseech Thee O Father to raise us from the death of sin unto the life of righteousness;84 that when we shall depart this life we may sleep in him, as our hope is this our brother doth:85 and at the general resurrection in the last day both we, and this our brother departed, receiving again our bodies, and rising again in thy most gracious favour, may with all thine elect saints obtain eternal joy. Grant this, &c.
    The Epistle. 1 Thess. i v. [ver. 13 to end]
    The Gospel. [ver. 37 to 40]

In 1549.
In 1552 this clear structure was thrown :into confusion: the Office of the Dead and the Eucharist were both given up:86 the prayers at the graveside were abolished and there were substituted for them some parts of the discarded sections, viz. the lessons, the Lord’s Prayer and collect from the third section, and the collect from the fourth section. Three minor alterations were also made; (i) the rubric after the lowering of the body into the grave was altered to its present terms, — ‘Then, while the earth shall be cast upon the body by some standing by, the Priest shall say, &c.: (ii) the commendation was altered to the present declaration, so as to be a mere committal of the bod yinstead of, as before, a commendation also of the soul: (Forasmuch as it hath pleased Almighty God of His great mercy to take unto Himself the soul of our dear brother, here departed, we therefore commit his body to the ground, &c.’;87 (iii) the collects were recast in such a way that the beginning of the old prayer at the end of the third section was made the beginning of the new prayer in that section: while the end of it was tacked on to the collect which was now brought out of the fourth section. The object of all these changes was to exclude the direct prayers for the departed.

The old rubric remained as to proceeding to the church, but no direction was given which part of the service, if any, should be said in the church, nor was any Psalm appointed: and in this state it continued until the last revision’(1661); then the disorder was partly remedied: the lesson was taken from its anomalous position88 and appointed to form with two psalms a brief Office of the Dead to be read in the church before proceeding to the grave.

Changes made in 1552.
Turning now to review the present service, it is to be noted that the first rubric, was added in 1661, directing that the office should not be used for any that die unbaptized,89 or excommunicate, or have laid violent hands upon themselves. The interpretation which the law puts upon this rubric is certain; that valid baptism by any hand, however irregular, secures the Church’s rites of burial; excommunication is a punishment which can only be inflicted by the sentence of a competent tribunal; and the question of suicide is determined by the coroner’s inquest.90

The present office.

In what cases it may not be used.

The second rubric directs the Priest to meet the corpse at the entrance of the churchyard;91 and then to go into the church or towards the grave; that is, into the church on all ordinary occasions; and to the grave, if the person has died of any infectious disease, or for some such reason.
The procedure.
Of the texts which are said or sung in the procession, the first and second have long been used in some part of the funeral offices; the former was an Antiphon, the latter a Respond,92 The third sentence as it now stands is a revised edition of two texts which were first appointed in 1549. The .present Psalms93 were inserted in 1661,and did not form part of the older funeral services; but part of the lesson had been read as the Epistle in the Mass of the Dead.94

The Anthems and Psalms.

The Lesson.


The latter part of the sentences appointed to be said by the priest, or sung by the priest and ‘clerks while the corpse is made ready to be laid into the earth, is taken from an Antiphon with Verses which was sung with the Nunc dimittis at Compline during a part of Lent.95
At the grave.

The practice of casting the earth96 upon the body is a retention in its most simple form of an old ceremony which in the Latin Service followed a long series of psalms and collects and the form of hallowing the grave.97

The verse that follows (Rev. xiv. 13) was read as part of the Epistle in the Mass for the Dead but was not otherwise utilized. in the service except that the first part was one of the antiphons in the Office for the Dead.98

SECT. V. — The Churching of Women.

This service of ‘Thanksgiving of Women after Childbirth,’ can be traced to early days of the Christian Church99 but is ultimately derived from the Jewish rite of The Purification.100 This name for the rite was’ preserved in the Title of 1549 but disappeared when it was altered into the present form in 1552 owing to objections and mistakings.101 The service follows very closely the mediæval line,102 but opens with an explanatory address in the style of the reformation period.

The Burial.
The place of the service has been variously defined: in the Latin rubrics of the Manual as “before the Church door”; in 1549 as “nigh unto the quire door”; in 1552 as “nigh unto the place where the Table standeth”: in 1661 it was left to custom or special order to decide. At the same time it was directed that the woman should be decently apparelled i.e. “suitably”; and the reference is to the English custom of wearing a veil:103 this till then was not prescribed either in the Latin or English rubric: nevertheless it was not merely usual but was actually enforced by law, both ecclesiastical and civil, when the Puritans attempted to give it up.104
The old psalm (cxxi) was displaced in 1661 by two alternative psalms: the first (cxvi) is applicable to any deliverance from peril and therefore concerns the woman, while Ps. cxxvii has more reference to the birth of the child. The suffrages and collect come direct from the Latin but the prayer was alteredin 1661 so as to include a definite expression of thankfulness.


The service ends abruptly105 because it is meant precede the Holy Communion,106 as was the case in pre-reformation times.107 This is not only pointed out by the closing rubric, but is involved in other places: the position assigned to the woman in 1552 near the altar is significant: also the choice in 1661 of psalm cxvi with the verse “What reward shall I give unto the Lord for all the benefits that He hath done unto me? I will receive the Cup of Salvation.” The “accustomed offerings” appeared first in the rubric of 1549 together with the mention of the baptismal chrysom, which according to old custom was brought back to church at the churching. When the giving of this robe was omitted at Baptism, the mention of it disappeared here also, and only the reference to the offerings remained: they properly belong to the offertory in the Communion following.108 and form another link between the two services.109

SECT. VI.-A Commination. or Denouncing of God’s anger and judgments against sinners, with certain Prayers to be used on the first day of Lent, and at other times, as the Ordinary shall appoint.110

This addition to the ordinary service on Ash Wednesday is a memorial of the solemn public penitence, which formed so distinct a feature in the discipline of the early Church.111 It is called a Commination, from the opening warning, or Exhortation to Repentance, in the course of which the curses of God which rest upon sin are solemnly recited.112 This address, like the similar forms in our other services, is a composition of the Reformers; the prayers which follow it are taken from those which were used on this occasion in the pre-Reformation Church, and go back to early days, as the solemn devotions of Ash Wednesday.113

Relation to the Eucharist.
Six solemn collects were said, prefaced by the penitential psalms and a set of suffrages, and followed by the solemn absolution of the people at large. Then followed the blessing and distribution of ashes: while anthems were sung, a cross was marked with ashes on the foreheads of the people, and to each the solemn warning was given, ‘Remember, O man, that thou art ashes and unto ashes shalt thou return.’ Then, after two collects, those who were to be under penitential discipline during Lent were solemnly excluded from church by the bishop.

The Latin service of ashes.
In the Prayer Book service only the fifty-first psalm was retained, followed by the suffrages and the first collect.114 The beginning of the prayer following, ‘O most mighty God, &c.’ is taken from the form for blessing the ashes, and the remainder is formed from one the preceding collects.115
The Prayer Book service.
O most mighty God. &c.

The general supplication, said by the people after the Minister, is closely connected with Joel ii., which formed the Epistle for Ash Wednesday and it has also reminiscences of the anthems sung at the distribution of the ashes in the ancient service.116

The Aaronic blessing was added in 1661: till then the service ended abruptly because of the Communion service, which should follow.117


The Supplications, ‘Turn thou us, &c.’

1 For the whole of this section, see Watkins, Holy Matrimony, esp. ch. vi., and Duchesne, ch. xiv.

2 This form of marriage, the only one involving religious rites, had gone out of popular use among the pagan Romans in the second century, but was retained in a christianized form by the Church.

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3 Ep. ad Polyc. 5.

4 Ad uxorem, ii, 9. ‘Unde sufficiamus ad enarrandam felicitatem ejus matrimonii quod ecclesia conciliat, et confirm at oblatio, et obsignat benedictio, angeli renuntiant, Pater rato habet?

5 De Virg Vel. II. The crown is of later date. Warren, A.-N Liturg. 138.

6 For other earlier references see Watkins, l. c.

7 “Nostrates siquidem tam mares quam feminæ non ligaturam auream vel argenteam aut ex quolibet metallo compositam quando nuptialia fœdera contrahunt in capitibus deferunt: sed post sponsalia, quæ futurarum sunt nuptiarum promissa fœdera, quæque consensu eorum, quæ hæc contrahunt, et eorum, in quorum potestate sunt, celebrantur, et postquam arrhis sponsam sibi sponsus per digitum fidei a se annulo insignitum desponderit, dotemque utrique placitam sponsus ei cum scripto pactum hoc continente coram invitatis ab utraque parte tradiderit; aut mox, aut apto tempore . . . ambo ad nuptilia fœdera perducuntur. Et primum quidem in ecclesia domini cum oblationibus, quas offerre debent, Deo per sacerdotis manum, statuuntur, sicque demum benedictionem et velamen cœleste suscipiunt. . . . Post hæc autem de ecclesia egressi coronas in capitibus gestant, quæ semper in ecclesia ipsa sunt solitæ reservari.’ Cap. iii., Harduin v. 354.

8 Except in the Leonine Sacr.

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9 See above, p. 523.

10 Muratori, i. 446; i. 722 ; and ii. 244.

11 It is given below, p. 617.

12 For the curtailment of variation in these two respects, see above pp. 448, 489.

13 York has a Trinity sequence, but Sarum one for Whitsuntide.

14 Ordo ad faciendum Sponsatia. Maskell, Mon. Rit. I. p. 42 [50]. The York Ordo is printed in the York Manual (Surtees Society) p. 24: the Sarum Ordo is in the Appendix, p. 17*; the Hereford. Ordo, p. 115*; and other ancient Ordines, p. 157*.

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15 The service runs thus in the Sarum Manual: the vernacular parts above are taken from the York Manual.
    ‘In primis statuantur vir et mulier ante ostium ecclesie coram Deo, sacerdote, et populo, vir a dextris mulieris, et mulier a sinistris viri.
    Tunc interroget sacerdos benna, dicens in lingua materna sub hac forma :

    Ecce convenimus huc, fratres, coram Deo, et angelis, et omnibus sanctis ejus, in facie ecclesiæ, ad conjungendum duo corpora, scilicet hujus viri et hujus mulieris, Hic respiciat sacerdos personas suas, ut a modo sint una caro et duæ animæ in fide et in lege Dei, ad promerendam simul vitam æternam quicquid ante hoc fecerint, Admoneo igitur vos omnes, ut si quis sit ex vobis qui aliquid dicere sciat quare isti adolescentes legitime contrahere non possint, modo confiteatur.
    Eadem admonitio fiat ad virun: et ad mulierem, ut, si quid ab illis occulte actum fuerit, vel si quid devoverint, vel alio modo de se noverint quare legitime contrahere non possint, tunc confiteantur.

16 ‘Then lete hem come and wytnes brynge
    To stonde by at here weddynge :
    So openlyche at the chyrche dore
    Lete hem eyther wedde othere.’
Myrk, Instructions for Parish Priests, p. 7 (ed. Early English Text Society).

17 The direction given above as to the position of the parties was not inserted in the Prayer Rook till 1661. The ambiguity of the english rubric is made clear by the latin.

18 Comp. Hermann’s Consultation, fol. ccxxviii: at the beginning of the ceremony there is an address, reciting from Gen. ii., Matt. xix., and Ephes, v., and then proceeding: — Out of these places the despoused persons and rest of the congregation must be warned that they learn and consider, first, how holy a kind of life and how acceptable to God Matrimony is. For by these places we know that God Himself instituted holy wedlock, and that in paradise, man being yet perfect and holy, and that he hath greatly blessed this copulation, and joineth Himself all those together which contract Matrimony in His name, and giveth the husband to be an head and saviour to the wife, as Christ is the Head and Saviour of the congregation, and furthermore giveth the wife a body and a help to the husband, that here in this world they may lead a godly, honest, and joyous life together;’ and again, in the prayer after the ceremonies of the ring and joining of hands :— ‘ Which also honoured Matrimony with His presence, and with the beginning of His miracles, and would have it to be a token and mystery of His exceeding love towards the congregation.’ The three ‘causes for which Matrimony was ordained’ were commonplaces of scholastic theology: they are also found at considerable length in the Calvinistic services, and in the Order of Matrimony printed by Ant. Scoloker (circa 1548), Bodleian Libr., Arch. Bodl., A. i., 56. They have been omitted in the Irish and American Books, though there never was a time when plain speaking was more necessary and false modesty more to be deprecated than the present.

19 ‘Si vero aliquis impedimentum proponere voluerit et ad hoc probandum cautionem prœstiterit, differantur sponsalia quousque rei neritas cognoscatur.’

20 ‘Postea dicat sacerdos ad virum cunctis audientibus sic: N. vis habere hanc mulierem in sponsam, earn diligere, honorare, tenere, et custodire sanam et infirmam, sicut sponsus debet sponsam; et omnes alias propter eam dimittere, et illi soli adhærere quamdiu vita utriusque vestrum duraverit? Respondeat vir: Volo.
    Item dicat sacerdos ad mulierem hoc modo: N. Vis habere hunc virum in sponsum, et ei obedire et servire; et eum diligere, honorare, ac custodire sanum et infirmum, sicut sponsa debet sponsum; et omnes alios propter eum dimittere, et illi soli adhærere quamdiu vita utriusque vestrum duraverit? Respondeat mulier: Volo.
    Deinde derur femina a patre suo vel ab amicis ejus: quod si puella sit, discoopertam habeat manum: si vidua, tectam: quam vir recipiat in Dei fide et sua servandam, sicut vovit coram sacerdote, et teneat eam per manum dextram in manu sua dextra, et sic det fidem mulieri per verba de præsenti, ita dicens docente sacerdote,’ &c. as on p. 614.

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21 i. e., faithful and obedient.

22 i. e., honour: Cp. Wiclif at S. Mat. xix. 19, ‘worschipe thi fadir and modir;’ and I Sam, ii. 30, in the old translation, ‘him that worships me I will worship.’ The phrase was objected to by the Puritan’s in 1604, and again in 1661, conceiving it to mean divine worship or adoration; and on both occasions it was agreed, as a matter of indifference, that it might be, ‘worship and honour,’ or ‘with my body I thee honour.’ The old word was, however, retained, as in Luke xiv. 10, and as it is still in common use in the phrase , ‘worshipful’ for ‘honourable.’

23 ‘Accipiens sacerdos annulum tradat ipsum viro : quem vir accipiat manu sua dextera cum tribus principalioribus digitis, et manu sua sinistra tenens dexteram sponsæ docente sacerdote dictat:
    With this rynge I the wed, &c.
    Et tunc inserat sponsus annulum pollici sponsæ dicens: In nomine Patris: deinde secunda digito dicens: et Filii: deinde tertio digito dicens: et Spiritus Sancti: deinde quarto digito dicens : Amen. ibique dimittat annulum: quia in medica est quædam vena procedens usque ad cor: et in sonoritate argenti designatur interna dilectio, quæ semper inter eos debet esse recens.’

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24 ‘Belledicat sacerdos annulum hoc modo, cum Dominus vobiscum, et cum Oremus. Oratio.
    ‘Creator et Conservator humani generis, dator gratiæ spiritalis, largitor æternæ salutis; tu, Domme, mitte benedictionem tuam super hunc annulum, ut quæ ilium gestaverit sit armata virtute cœlestis defensionis, et proficiat illi ad æternam salutem. Per Christum.
    Oremus. Bene + dic, Domine, hunc annulum, quem nos in tuo sancto nomine benedicimus: ut quæcumque eum portaverit in tua pace consistat, et in tua voluntate per·maneat, et in tuo amore vivat et crescat et senescat, et multiplicetur in longitudinem dierum. Per Dominum.
    Tunc aspergatur aqua benedicta super annulum.

25 But note the change in the ceremony of the ring.

26 The allusion to the ‘tokens of spousage’ of Isaac, which was part of the prayer in 1549, when the , tokens’ were still retained,’ was omitted from the prayer in 1552, when they ceased to be given. A similar modification was also made in the pronouncement of union which follows.

27 ‘Then, if perchance they have rings, let them put them one upon another’s finger, and so let the Minister join ther right hands together, and say: That that God hath joined, let no man dissever. And let the Pastor say moreover with a loud voice that may be heard of all men : Forasmuch as then this John N. desireth this Anne to be his wife in the Lord, and this, Anne desireth this John to be her husband in the Lord, and one hath made the other a promise of holy and Christian Matrimony, and have now both professed the same openly, and have confirmed it with giving of rings each to other, and joining of hands, I the Minister of Christ and the congregation pronounce that they be joined together with lawful and Christian Matrimony, and I confirm this their Marriage in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Amen.’ Hermann’s Consultation, fol. cc xxx.

28 ‘Bene+dicat vos Deus Pater, custodiat vos Jesus Christus, illuminet vos Spiritus Sanctus. Ostendat Dominus faciem suam in vobis et misereatur vestri. Convertat Dominus vultum suum ad vos: et det vobis pacem: impleatque vos omni benedictione spirituali, in remissionem omnium peccatorum vestrorum ut habeatis vitam æternam, et vivatis in sæcula sæculorum. Amen.’
    Sarum Manual, Ordo ad faciend. Sponsalia, Maskell, Mon. Rit. I. p. 49 [60]. In 1549 this was simply translated; the sign of the cross was omitted at the revision in 1552, and the blessing slightly altered to its present form. In the American Prayer Book the service ends at the blessing.

29 In some places the hands were tied together by the Priest’s stole and this is the present custom in many places under the Roman Rite, See Martene. Lib. I. cap. ix., Ord. XII-XV.
    And for a full discussion of the ceremonies, see S. Paul’s Eccles. Soc. Trans. iii. 165 and ff.

30 Formerly the nuptials were often solemnized some time after the espousal. There is an instance of this temp. Charles I. quoted by Blunt, p, 452.

31 Ps. cxxviii. A second Psalm (lxvii.} was appointed in 1549, to be used when the language of the ancient Marriage-psalm is clearly unsuitable.

32 ‘Hic intrent ecclesiam usque ad gradum altaris: et sacerdos in eundo cum suis ministris dicat hunc Psalmum sequentem: Beati omnes sine nota, cum Kyrie eleison. Tunc prostratis sponso et sponsa ante gradum altaris, roget sacerdos circumstantes orare pro eis, diceudo: Pater noster. Et ne nos. Sed libera.
    Salvum fac servum tuum et ancillam tuam.
    Deus meus sperantes in te.
    Mitte eis, Domine, auxilium de sancto.
    Et de Syon tuere eos.
    Esto eis, Domine, turris fortitudinis.
    A facie inimici.
    Domine exaudi orationem meam.
    Et clamor meus ad te veniat.
    Dominus vobiscum.
    Et cum spiritu tuo,
    Oremus. Benedicat vos Dominus ex Syon, &c.
    Oremus. Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, Deus Jacob, bene + dic adolescentes istos: et semina semen vitæ æternæ in mentibus eorum: ut quicquid pro utilitate sua didicerint, hoc face re cupiant. Per Jesum.
    Oremus. Respice, Domine, de cœlis, et bene+dic conventionem istam. Et sicut misisti sanctum angelum tuum Raphaelem ad Tobiam et Saram filiam Raguelis, ita digneris, Domine, mittere bene+dictionem tuam super istos adolescentes : ut in tua voluntate permaneant: et in tua securitate persistant: et in amore tuo vivant et senescant: ut digni atque pacifici fiant et multiplicentur in longitudinem dierum. Per Christum Dominum nostrum.
    Oremus. Respice, Domine, propitius super hunc famulum tuum, et super hanc famulam tuam; ut in nomine tuo bene-+-dictionem cœlestem accipiant: et filios filiorum suorum et filiarum suarum usque in tertiam et quartam progeniem incolumes videant, et in tua voluntate perseverent, et in futuro ad cœlestia regna perveniant. Per Christum.
    Oremus. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui primos parentes nostros Adam et Evam sua virtute creavit, et in sua sanctificatione copulavit: Ipse corda et corpora vestra sanctificet et bene-+-dicat, atque in societate et amore veræ dilectionis conjungat. Per Christum.
    Deinde benedicat eos dicens:
    Oremus. Bene+dicat vos Deus omnipotens omni bene+dictione cœlesti, efficiatque vos dignos in conspectu suo: superabundet in vobis divitias gratiæ suæ, et erudiat vos in verbo veritatis, ut ei corpore pariter et mente complacere valeatis. Per Dominum nostrum.’
    The mention of Tobit in the second prayer was preserved in 1549, but omitted in 1552.

33 ‘Oremus. Propitiare Domine &c. Oremus. Deus qui potestate virtutis tuæ de nihilo cuncta fecisti; qui dispositis universitatis exordiis, homini ad imaginem Dei facto inseparabile mulieris adjutorium condidisti, ut fœmineo corpori de virili dares carne principium, docens quod ex uno placuisset institui, nunquam liceret disjungi; Hic incipit benedictio sacramentalis : Deus, qui tam excellenti mysterio conjugalem copulam consecrasti, ut Christi et ecclesiæ sacramentum præsignares in fœdere nuptiarum; Hic finitur benedictio sacramentalis : Deus, per quem mulier jungitur viro et societas principaliter ordinata ea benedictione + donatur, quæ sola nec per originalis peccati pœnam, nec per diluvii est ablata sententiam; respice propitius super hanc famulam tuam quæ maritali jungenda est consortio, quæ se tua expetit protectione muniri. Sit in ea jugum dilectionis et pacis: fidelis et casta nubat in Christo : imitatrixque sanctarum permaneat fœminarum. Sit amabilis ut Rachel viro: sapiens ut Rebecca: longæva et fidelis ut, Sara . . . et ad beatornm requiem atque ad cœlestia regna perveniat. Per Dominum, &c. Per omni. sæcula sæculorum. Amen.’

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34 Although this is no longer the positive rule, yet the rubric still asserts that it is ‘convenient’ i.e. suitable; this shows that a Deacon should not officiate at a Marriage; and this is the more clear when it is remembered that the office is also, in an ecclesiastical point of view, especially one of benediction. Cp. Blunt, Annotated Prayer Book, p. 264 [450].

35 ‘This rubric doth either enforce all such as are unfit for the sacrament to forbear Marriage, contrary to Scripture, which approves the Marriage of all men; or else compels all that marry to come to the Lord’s Table, though never so unprepared; and therefore we desire it may be omitted, the rather because that Marriage-festivals are too often accompanied with such divertisements as are unsuitable to those Christian duties, which ought to be before and follow after the receiving of that holy Sacrament.’ The Bishops reply to this, that it ‘enforces none to forbear Marriage, but presumes (as well it may) that all persons marriageable ought to be also fit to receive the holy Sacrament; and Marriage being so solemn a covenant of God, they that undertake it in the fear of God will not stick to seal it by receiving the Holy Communion, and accordingly prepare themselves for it. It were more Christian to desire that those licentious festivities might be suppressed, and the Communion more generally used by those that marry: the happiness would be greater than can easily be expressed.’ Cardwell, Conferences, pp. 331, 360.

36 This was necessarily the case before the Act of 1836 (6 and 7 Gul. IV. c. 85), which allowed a civil contract of Marriage to be made in the presence of a Registrar.

37 Hooker, E.P. v, lxxiii, 8. Fragm. Illustr. 93.

38 Concil. Laodicense, (circa 364) Can. LII. : “Οτι ου δει εν τεσσαρακοστη γαμους η γενεθλια επιτελειν. Mansi, II. 571. Bruns. I. 78. Gratian, Decr. XXXIII. iv. 8.

39 The following clause was proposed to the Convocation (1661), but was not inserted in the Prayer Book:— ‘ By the ecclesiastical laws of this realm there be some times in the year wherein marriages are not usually solemnized, as from Advent Sunday until eight days after the Epiphany: from Septuagesima Sunday until eight days after Easter; from Rogation Sunday until Trinity Sunday.’ See Cardwell, Synodalia, I. p. 134, n. Also for old English Rules the 18th Canon of Eynsham (1009) in Hard. vi. 777; and for later customs , Lyndw. iv. 3. and iii. 16.

40 Gibson, Codex XXII. viii. Ayliffe, Parergon 365. Blunt, Annot. B. C. P. 447.

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41 A marriage license is an episcopal dispensation setting aside the necessity of Banns.

42 ‘Non fidabit sacerdos nee consentiet ad fidationem inter virum et mulierem ante tertium dictum bannorum. Debet enim sacerdos banna in facie ecclesiæ infra missarum solemnia cum major populi adfuerit multitudo, per tres dies solemnes et disjunctas interrogare: ita ut inter unumquemque diem solemnem cadat ad minus una dies ferialis. . . Et si contrahentes diversarum sint parochiarum, tunc in utraque ecclesia parochiarum illarum sunt banna interroganda.’ Sarum Manual, Ordo ad faciendum Sponsalia; Maskell, Mon. Rit. I. p. 44 [54, ed. 1882]. The triple publication, trina denunciatio, was ordered by the Council of Westminster (1200) Can. XI. Hard. vi. 1961. See also Lyndw. IV. 3.

43 The Marriage Acts (26 Geo. II. c. 33, and 4 Geo. IV. c. 76), say:— The said banns shall be published upon three Sundays preceding the solemnization of Marriage, during the time of Morning Service, or of the Evening Service if there be no Morning Service in such Church or Chapel on any of those Sundays immediately after the Second Lesson.’
    By the former Act the minister may require seven days notice of the names and addresses of the parties before the first publication of Banns.

44 Blunt Annot. B. C. P. p. 447.

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45 See Watkins, Holy Matrimony, ch. x.

46 S. Mark vi. 13. S. James v.: 14, 15.

47 Constitutiones Richardi Poore, Episc. Sar. (circ. 1223), §. 94: , Cum anima longe pretiosiorsit corpore, sub interjectione anathematis prohibemus, ne quis medicorum pro corporali salute aliquid ægro suadeat, quod in periculum animæ convertatur. Verum cum ipsis ad ægrum vocari contigerit, ægrum ante omnia moneant et inducant, quod advocent medicos animarum; ut postquam fuerit infirmo de spirituali salute provisum, ad corporalis medicinæ remedium salubrius procedatur.’ ‘Sarum Charters 159. Wilk. i. 572 and ff.

48 Canon LXVII. (1603). ‘When any person is dangerously sick in any parish, the Minister or Curate, having knowledge thereof, shall resort unto him or her (if the disease be not known, or probably suspected, to be infectious), to instruct and comfort them in their distress, according to the order of the Communion” Book, if he be no preacher; or if he be a preacher, then as he ‘shall think most needful and convenient.’

49 ‘Psalmi septem.’ Ant. Ne reminiscaris Domine &c. See above p. 415. Et cum intraverit domum dicat. Pax huic domui et omnibus habitantibus in ea: pax ingredientibus et egredientibus.’
    Deinde aspergat infirmum aqua benedicta, et statim sequatur : Kyrie eleison &c. V. Et ne nos. R. Sed libera. V. Salvum fac servum tuum vel ancillam tuam. R. Deus meus sperantem in te. V. Mitte ei Domine auxilium de sancto, R. Et de Syon tuere eum. V. .Nihil proficiat inimicus in eo. R. Et filius ipiquitatis non apponat nocere ei. V. Esto ei Domine turris fortitudinis. R. A facie inimici. V. Domine, exaudi orationem meam. R. Et clamor meus ad te veniat, Dominus vobiscum. Oremus . . .
    Respice, Domine, de cœlo, et, vide et visita hunc famulum tuum N. et benedic eum sicut benedicere dignatus es Abraham, Isaac, et Jacob. Respice super eum, Domine, oculis misericordise tuæ: et reple eum omni gaudio et lætitia et timore tuo. Expelle ab eo omnes inimici insidias: et mitte Angelum pads qui eum custodiat et domum istam in pace perpetua. Per.
    Exaudi nos omnipotens et misericors Deus, et visitationem tuam conferre digneris super hunc famulum tuum N. quem diversa vexat infirmitas. Visita eum, Domine, sicut visitare dignatus es socrum Petri, puerumque centurionis, et Tobiam et Saram, per sanctum angelum tuum Raphaelem. Restitue in eo, Domine, pristinam sanitatem: ut mereatur in atrio domus tuæ dicere, Castigans castigavit me Dominus, et morti non tradidit me salvator mundi. Qui . . . .’

50 S. Mat. x. 13.

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51 The following extracts will give a general idea of this part of the Latin service.
    ‘Deinde priusquam ungatur infirmus, aut communicetur, exhortetur eum sacerdos hoc modo.
    Frater carissime, gratias age omnipotenti Deo pro universis beneficiis suis, patienter et benigne suscipiens infirmitatem corporis quam tibi immisit: nam si ipsam humiliter sine murmure toleraveris, infert animæ tuæ maximlim præmium et salutem. Et, frater carissime, quia viam universæ carnis ingressurus es, esto firmus in fide . . . . ‘
    The priest then expounds at length the articles of the Faith and then asks for a profession of the sick man’s faith thus. ‘Carissime frater, credis Patrem et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum esse tres Personas et unum Deum, et ipsam benedictam atque indivisibilem Trinitatem creasse omnia creata visibilia, et invisibilia? Et solum Filium, de Spiritu Sancto conceptum, incarnatum, &c. ?
    Deinde respondeat infirmus: Credo firmiter in omnibus, sicut sancta mater credit ecclesia . . . .’

52 See Maskell, Mon. Rit. iii. pp.’ 1350 [410] and ff.

53 Then followed an exhortation ; to charity and restitution:
    ‘Deinde dicat sacerdos : Carissime frater: quia sine caritate nihil proderit fides . . . . Exerce ergo caritatis opera dum vales: et si multum tibi affuerit, abundanter tribue; si autem exiguum, illud impartiri stude. Et ante omnia si quem injuste læseris, satisfacias si valeas: sin autem, expedit ut ab eo veniam humiliter postules, Dimitte debitoribus tuis et aliis qui in te peccaverunt. ut Deus tibi dimittat . . .’

54 ‘Deinde stabilito sic infirmo in fide caritate et spe, dicat ei sacerdos, Carissime frater, si velis ad visionem Dei pervenire, oportet omnino quod sis mundus in mente et purus in conscientia : ait enim Christus in evangelio : Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt, Si ergo vis mundum cor et conscientiam sanam habere, peccata tua universa confitere . . . .’ Then after his confession he urges him to alms deeds in lieu of penance, or if he recovers to the due performance of penance itself.
    ‘Deinde absolvat sacerdos infirmum ab omnibus peccatis suis, hoc modo dicens:
    Dominus noster Jesus Christus pro sua magna pietate te absolvat : et ego auctoritate ejusdem Dei Domini nostri Jesu Christi, et beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et auctoritate mihi tradita absolvo te ab omnibus peccatis his de quibus corde contritus et ore mihi confessus es : et ab omnibus aliis peccatis tuis de quibus si tuæ occurrerent memoriæ libenter confiteri velles : et sacramentis ecclesiæ te restituo. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. . . .

55 The relative sentence introduced at the beginning, “Who hath left, &c.” is a reminiscence of the Order of the Communion, See above, p. 487. In 1549 this form was also prescribed for all private confessions: this direction was omitted in 1552, and the words ‘after this form’ were altered into their present phraseology, after this sort.

56 In the American Book the rubric and declaratory absolution are omitted. See p. 245. In the Irish Book as formerly in the American, the absolution of the Communion Service is prescribed with a modified rubric. See p. 233.

57 ‘Deus misericors, Deus clemens, qui secundum multitudinem miserationum tuarum peccata pœnitentium deles, et præteritorum criminum culpas venia remissionis evacuas: respice super hunc famulum tuum N. sibi remissionem omnium peccatorum suorum tota cordis contritione poscentem. Renova in eo, piissime Pater, quicquid diabolica fraude violatum est: et unitati corporis ecclesiæ tuæ membrum infirmum, peccatorum percepta remissione, restitue. Miserere, Domine, gemituum ejus : miserere lacrymarum: miserere tribulationum atque dolorum: et non habentem fiduciam nisi in tua misericordia ad sacramentum reconciliationis admitte. Per Christum Dominum nostrum.’
    Cp. Gelas. Sacr. 552.

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58 ‘Priusquam ungatur infirmus incipiat sacerdos ant. Salvator mundi. Deinde dicatur pralmus In te domine speravi, Finito psalmo cum Gloria patri tota dicatur ant. Salvator mundi salva nos, qui per crucem et sanguinem redemisti nos: auxiliare nobis te deprecamur Deus noster.’

59 E. g., ‘Remember not Lord’ in the Litany and the opening of the Visitation.
    In the American Book the cxxxth psalm is substituted for the lxxist.

60 If the sick person desire to be anointed, then shall the Priest anoint him upon the forehead or breast only, making the sign of the cross, saying thus :— As with this visible oil thy body outwardly is anointed, so our heavenly Father, Almighty God, grant of His infinite goodness that thy soul inwardly may be anointed with the Holy Ghost, who is the Spirit of all strength, comfort, relief, and gladness: and vouchsafe for His great mercy (if it be His blessed will) to restore unto thee thy bodily health and strength to serve Him; and send thee release of all thy pains, troubles, and diseases, both in body and mind. And howsoever His goodness (by His divine and unsearchable providence) shall dispose of thee, we, His unworthy ministers and servants, humbly beseech the Eternal Majesty to do with thee according to the multitude of His innumerable mercies, and to pardon thee all thy sins and offences, committed by all thy bodily senses, passions, and carnal affections: Who also vouchsafe mercifully to grant unto thee ghostly strength by His Holy Spirit to withstand and overcome all temptations and assaults of thine adversary, that in no wise he prevail against thee, but that thou mayest have perfect victory, and triumph against the devil, sin, and death, through Christ our Lord: Who by His death hath overcome the prince of death, and with the Father and the Holy Ghost evermore liveth and reigneth God world without end. Amen.
    Usquequo Domine. Ps. xiii.’

61 Ps. lxi, 3: Phil. ii. 10,11: Acts iv, 12.

62 Num. vi. 24.

63 In the XVIIth century part of the Visitation service was sometimes used after Divine Service in church when a sick person desired the prayers of the congregation. Blunt, 470. Cp. Fragm. Illustr. 95.

64 In the American Book three further forms are added: 1. For all present at the Visitation, 2. In case of sudden surprise and immediate danger, 3. A thanksgiving for the beginning of a recovery. The Irish Book has A Prayer for a sick person when his sickness has been mercifully assuaged.

65 The last hours of an Anglo-Saxon were thus occupied, according to the Leofric Missal: ‘Incipit ordo in agenda mortuorum. Mox autem ut eum viderint, ad extremum propinquare, communicandus est de sacrificio sancto etiam si comedisset ipsa die, quia communio erit ei defensor et adjutor in resurrectione justorum et ipsa eum resuscitabit, Post communionem susceptam, legendæ sunt passiones dominicæ ante corpus infirmi seu a presbyteris, seu a diaconibus, usque egrediatur anima de corpore. Primitus enim ut anima de corpore egressa fuerit, ponatur super cilicium et canantur VII. psalmi pœnitentiales, et agenda et letania prout tempus fuerit. Finitis autem sanctorum nominibus, mox incipiatur R. Subvenite, sancti Dei, occurite angeli Domini. (p. 198. Ed. Warren.)

66 ‘ Interroget eum sacerdos si recognoscat corpus et sanguinem DN/C sic dicendo: Frater credis quod sacramentum quod tractatur in altari est verum corpus et. sanguis DNJC ? Respondeat infirmus Credo. Deinde communicetur. ‘ A prayer and psalm civ, followed.

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67 Calvin. Epistle 361. (Aug. 12, 1561); Hill, Communicant instructed (1617) pp. 36, 37.

68 Cp. the Scottish Book, ‘a sufficient number, at least two or three.’ It was suggested here by Wren. Fragm. Illustr. 97. The rule is the same as for a public Communion, that there must be three at the least to communicate with the Priest. . The only exception to this rule is that, in a time of contagious sickness, ‘upon the special request of the diseased, the Minister may only communicate with him:’ this rubric was added in 1552.

69 The following was the shortened service ordered in 1549 :— ‘The Anthem: Remember not, Lord, &c. Lord, have mercy upon us. &c. Our Father, &c. Let us pray. O Lord, look down from heaven, &c. With the first part of the Exhortation and all other things unto the Psalm. And if the sick desire to be anointed, then shall the Priest use the appointed Prayer without any Psalm.’

70 See this subject treated, and suitable devotions provided, by Bishop Jeremy Taylor (Worthy Communicant, ch. vii. § 3, Works, VIII. pp. 238, 239), and Bishop Wilson (Instructions on the Lord’s Supper, Append. ‘Concerning Spiritual Communion,’ Works, II. pp: 130 & ff.).

71 ‘Deinde communicetur infirmus nisi prius communicatus fuerit et nisi de vomitu vel alia irreverentia probabiliter timeatur: in quo casu dicat sacerdos infirmo:— Frater, in hoc casu sufficit tibi vera fides, et bona voluntas : tantum crede, et manducasti.’ MaskeB, Mon. Rit. I. p. 89 [112], and cp. S. Austin. In Joan. Tr. xxv. 22.

72 Two additional rubrics appear in the American Book, one authorizing a still briefer service in the times of contagious sickness, the other sanctioning the substitution of the Collect, Epistle and Gospel of the day for those appointed above, in using this office with aged and bedridden persons, &c.

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73 The history of the early Church is full of tender evidence of a wealth of solicitude and prayer for those at rest. See Luckock, After Death, ch. vii., viii., ix., The early sacramentaries have the prayers of the cycle of services for the sick, the dying, and the departed, and the English forms are derived from the Gregorian sacramentaries. The custom of the Anglo-Saxon Church is described in the Penitential of Archbishop Theodore (688), V. 1. :— ‘Secundum Romanam ecclesiam mos est monachos vel homines religiosos defunctos in ecclesiam portare, et, cum chrisma ungere pectora eorum, ibique pro eis missas celebrare; deinde cum cantatione portare ad sepulturas; et cum positi fuerint in sepulcro, funditur pro eis oratio, deinde humo vel petra operiuntur.’ Haddan and Stubbs, iii. 194.

74 ‘Proficiscere anima christiana de hoc mundo in nomine dei patris omnipotentis qui te creavit, Amen. &c.’, thirteen petitions in all. ‘Sucipe itaque domine servum tuum in bonem et lucidum habitaculum tuum. Amen. Libera domine animam servi tui, &c.,’· twelve petitions. Maskell, Mon. Rit. i. 102 [128].

75 ‘Sequatur commendatio animarum, et dicatur in camera vel in aula sine nota juxta corpus, et omnia subsequenter similiter usque ad processionem ad hominem mortuum suscipiendum.’ Maskell, Mon. Rit. i pp. 104 [130]. This Ordo Commendationis Animæ in a briefer form figures constantly as The Commendations, or Psalms of Commendation, or The Commendations of the Souls, in the English Primers and Horæ, appended to the Office of the Dead. Mon. Rit. II. pp. 156 and ff. [III. 161]. The Prymer (E. E. T. S. 79-89.

76 The Officium pro Defunctis, or Vigiliæ Mortuorum, or Dirige, consisted of two parts: the Evensong, or Placebo, so called from the antiphon with which the service commenced, — ‘Placebo Domino in regione vivorum;’ and the Mattins (with Lauds), also called Dirige from its first antiphon, — ‘ Dirige Domine Deus meus in conspectu tuo viam meam.’ These offices were constantly said at other times, and as a private devotion, and thus formed a part of the Primer, (see Maskell, Mon. Rit. II, pp. 110 and .ff. [III. 115]; The Prymer (E. E. T. S.) 52 and ff.), and also of the Breviary (see Psalter, col. 271).

77 Missa pro Defunctis, called also Requiem, from the beginning of the Introit, or Officium, ‘Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis.’ Miss. Sar. col. 860*; Brev. Sar. Psalter, col. 521.

78 Inhumatio Defuncti, Maskell, I. p. 114 [142].

79 Ibid. 118 [146]. The foregoing services may also be seen, and in some respects more plainly, in the York and Sarum Manuals. (Surtees Soc. vol. 63).

80 Thirty masses were said on as many different days, and this was called Trigintale, a Trental. Special collects were inserted in the office in die tricennali, or in trigintalibus; and also in anniversario depositionis die. ‘ Though the corpse had been buried, the funeral rites were not yet over. All through the month following, Placebo, and Dirige, and masses continued to be said in that church, but with more particular solemnity on the third, the seventh, and the thirtieth day; at each of which times a dole of food or money was distributed among the poor.’ Rock, Ch. of our Fathers. II. 516. Comp. the Penitential of Theodore, ubi sup. ‘Prima et tertia et nona necnon et tricesima die pro eis missa agatur et exinde post annum, si voluerint, servatur.’

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81 Part of this lesson is one of four alternative lessons in Hermann’s Consultation, fol. ccxliv.

82 This exordium is taken from the Gregorian prayer ‘Deus apud quem mortuorum spiritus vivunt et in quo electorum animæ, deposito carnis onere, plena felicitate lætantur, &c.’: this, with the rest of the Gregorian prayers, figures in the later manuals: the remainder of the English prayer follows their language very closely, but is not drawn from anyone of them directly. The end comes from elsewhere, viz., the Mass De quinque vulneribus D. N. J. C.: ‘Te humiliter deprecamur, ut in die judicii ad dexteram tuam statuti a te audire mereamur illam vocem dulcissimam, Venite, benedicti, in regnum Patris mei.’ Missale Sar. col. 751.’*

83 This was a very ancient, if not a primitive, custom; ‘whereby the, friends of the departed testified their belief that the Communion of the saints in Christ extended beyond the grave;’ Guericke, p. 278. See Bingham, Antiq. XXIII. 3§ 12.

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84 Cp. a collect at the end of the Dirige in Bishop Hilsey’s Primer, 1539 (Burton’s Three Primers, p. 420), and in King Henry’s Primer, 1545 (ib. p. 492): ‘O God, whiche by the mouth of St. Paule thyne apostle hast taught us, not to wayle for them that slepe in Christ: Graunt we beseche the that in the comyng of thy sonne our lorde Jesu Christ, bothe we and all other faithful people beying departed may be graciously brought unto the joys everlasting.’

85 These expressions of thankfulness and hope were objected to by the Presbyterians in 1661 (above p. 128), but the Bishops simply replied, that (it is better to be charitable, and hope the best, than rashly to condemn :’ Cardwell, Conf. pp. 333, 362. ‘We are often said to hope that which we do only wish or desire, but have not particular grounds to believe; only we are not sure of the contrary, or that the thing is impossible:’ Bennet, Paraphr. (1708) p. 236. These clauses are altered in the American Prayer Book :— ‘We give Thee hearty thanks for the good examples of all those Thy servants who, having finished their course in faith, do now rest from their labours :’ and the words, (as our hope is this our brother doth,’ are omitted. Sec, Hooker, Eccl. Pol. v. 75, § 4.

86 The latter appears, however, in the Latin Prayer Book of 1560, together with the ‘Commemoration of Benefactors’ as an appendix. See above, p. 122, and Additional Note I., p. 644.

87 Cp. Hermann’s Consultation, fol. ccxxxix. Another funeral Sermon. Forasmuch as it has pleased Almighty God that according to His mercy He would take this our brother out of this world unto Himself. . . . .’ The declaration, that (it hath pleased God to take unto Himself the soul,’ was objected to by the Presbyterians in 1661, on the ground that it ‘cannot in truth be said of persons living and dying in open and notorious sins’ (Cardwell, Confer. p. 333)). But it is founded upon .the Scriptural expression, concerning the death of every man, that, dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it’ (Eccles. xii. 7); not necessarily to eternal life, but to His righteous judgment. Also the certain hope is of the resurrection, and of the change of our vile body; referring not only to the general resurrection of true Christians tu eternal life, but to the general resurrection of all mankind: compare the corresponding form, introduced’ in 1661, to be used At the Burial of their Dead at Sea; ‘We therefore commit his body to the deep, to be turned into corruption, looking for the resurrection of the body (when the sea shall give up her dead), and the life of the world to come, through our Lord Jesus Christ; who at His coming shall change our vile body that it may be like His glorious body . . . .’
    In the American Office our two forms of burial are united: ‘Forasmuch as it hath pleased Almighty God, in His wise providence, to take out of this world the soul of our brother departed, we therefore commit his body to the ground; earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust; looking for the general resurrection in the last day, and the life of the world to come, through our Lord Jesus Christ; at whose second coming in glorious majesty to judge the world, the earth and the sea, shall give up their dead; and the corruptible bodies of those who sleep in Him shall be changed, and made like unto His own glorious body; according to the mighty working whereby He is able to subdue all things unto Himself.

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88 The reading of the lesson at the grave-side was one of the practices to which the Puritans took exception. See above, p. 187.

89 The Irish Book makes special provision for ‘unbaptized, being infants.’

90 However painful may be the circumstances under which the Burial Service will at times be used, a clergyman may not treat an individual as a suicide, or excommunicate, without any previous legal sentence, or by setting aside the verdict of an authorized, though perhaps mistaken, jury.

91 Comp. the injunctions of Edw. IV. (1547): Forasmuch as priests be public ministers of the Church . . . they shall not be bound . . . to fetch any corse before it be brought to the churchyard.’ Cardwell, Doc. Ann. II. § 30.

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92 ‘Antiphona: Ego sum resurrectio et vita, qui credit in me etiam si mortuus fuerit vivet, et omnis qui vivit et credit in me non morietur in æternum.’ Man. Sar. Inhumatio Defuncti; Maskell, I. p. 126 [155]; Vigiliæ Mortuorum, In Laudibus, Brev. Sar. Psalter, col. 281.
    Resp. ‘Credo quod Redemptor meus vivit: et in novissimo die de terra surrecturus sum. Et in carne mea videbo Deum salvatorem meum. Vers. Quem visurus sum ego ipse et non alius : et oculi mei conspecturi sunt. R. Et in came mea, &c.’ In Vigiliis Mortuorum, Ad Matutinas : post Lectionem primam Responsorium, Brev. Sar. Psalter, col. 274.

93 The American Service has ‘an Anthem,’ or selected verses ‘from the 39th and 90th Psalms.’

94 ‘Hæ dua sequentes epistola legantur per totum annum ad nissam quotidianam pro defunctis alternis vicibus per hebdomadam. Lectio libri Apoc. e. xiv . . . . 1 ad Corinthios, c. xv. Fratres, Christus resurrexit a mortuis, primitiæ dormientium. Quoniam quidem per hominem mors : et per hominem resurrectio mortuorum. Et sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur: ita et in Christo omnes vivificabuntur. Unusquisque autem in suo ordine.’ Miss. Sar. Officium Mortuorum. ‘And for the consolation of the faithful in the Lord, and moving the zeal of godliness, it shall be convenient, when the corpse is brought to the burying-place, to propound, and declare before the people gathered there·together, the Lesson following: I Cor. xv., But now Christ is risen from the dead, &c., unto this place, What do we, &c.: or, from this place, This I say, brethren, that flesh and blood, &c., unto the end of the chapter.’ Hermann’s Consultation, fol. cc xliv.

95 ‘Media vita in morte sum us: quem quærimus adjutorem nisi te Domine? qui pro peccatis juste irasceris. Sancte Deus: Sancte fortis: Sancte et misericors salvator: amaræ morti ne tradas nos.’ The verses are of later date, and are differently given in different places: the following are those of the Sarum antiphon. ‘Vers. Ne projicias nos in tempore senectutis: cum defecerit virtus nostra, ne derelinquas nos, Domine. R. Sancte Deus, &c. Vers. Noli claudere aures tuas ad preces nostras. Eo. Sancte fortis, &c. Vers. Qui cognoscis occulta cord is parce peccatis nostris. R. Sancte et misericors, &c.’ Brev. Sar. Psalter, Ordo Completorii Dom. iii. quadr. Cp. Daniel, Thesaur. Hymnal. II. 329. The composition of the anthem has been ascribed to Notker, the monk of S. Gall, who began the Sequences, and was at the head of the great School of S. Gall, in the IXth century. At any rate it probably belongs to that school and that date, and the use of the Trisagion probably points to Gallican influence. Cp. the reproaches sung on Good Friday. Upon this ancient anthem Luther composed a German hymn, which was translated among Coverdale’s Ghostly Psalms. (Parker Soc., 554); and this translation seems to have affected the version which was introduced here into the Burial service in 1549. See Dict. Hymn, 721: Schubiger, Sängerschule St. Gallens, 56: Dowden, Workmanship, ch. xv.

96 Finitis oratíonious executor officii terram super corpus ad modum crucis ponat, et corpus thurificet et aqua benedicta aspergat: et dum sequens Psalmus canitur, corpus omnino cooperiatur, cantors incipiente antiphonam: De terra plasmasti me. Ps. Domine probasti me. Qua dicta dicat sacerdos sine Dominus vobiscum, et sine Oremus:
    Commendo animam tuam Deo Patri omnipotenti, terram terræ, cinerem cineri, pulverem pulveri, in nomine Patris, &c.’ Man. Sar. Inhumatio Defuncti; Maskell, Mon. Rit. I. 124 [153].

97 Miss. Sar. Offic. Mortuorum, col. 863*. The first part of the verse was also the antiphon to Magnificat in Placebo. Maskell, Mon. Rit. II. 118 [III. 122]; Brev. Sar. Psalter col. 272.

98 The custom of ringing a bell of the death of any person was very anciently observed in England. Bede speaks of it as common in his time Hist. Eccl. IV. c. 23, ‘notum campanæ sonum, quo ad orationes excitari vel convocari solebant, cum quis eorum de sæculo fuisset evocatus.’ Canon (1603) LXVII. : ‘When any is passing out of this life, a bell shall be tolled, and the Minister shall not then slack to do his last duty. And after the party’s death there shall be rung no more but one short peal, and one other before the burial, and one other after the burial.’

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99 It is referred to in the correspondence between S. Gregory and Augustine as to the services of. the newly-founded English Church Beda. H. E. I. xxvii. 8.

100 Lev. xii.; S. Luke ii. 22.

101 Hooker E. P. v. lxxiv.

102 ‘Ordo ad purificandam mulierem post partum ante ostium ecclesiæ.
    Primo sacerdos et ministri ejus dicant Psalmos sequentes : Ps. Levavi oculos meos. Ps. Beati omnes. Gloria Patri. Sequatur :
     Kyrie eleison.    Pater noster.
    V. Domine salvam fac ancillam tuam:
    R. Deus meus sperantem in te.
    V. Esto ei Domine turris fortitudinis:
    R. A facie inimici.
    V. Domine exaudi orationem meam:
    R. Et clamor meus ad te veniat.
    Dominus vobiscum. Oremus.
    Oratio. Deus qui hanc famulam tuam de pariendi periculo liberasti, et eam in servitio tuo devotam esse fecisti, concede ut temporali cursu fideliter peracto, subalis misericordiæ tuæ vitam perpetuam et quietam consequatur: Per Christum Dominum.
     Tunc aspergatur mulier aqua benedicta: deinde inducat eam sacerdos per manum dextram in ecclesiam dicens. Ingredere in templum Dei ut habeas vitam aternam et vivas in sæcula sæculorum. Amen.’ Maskell, Mon. Rit. I. 38 [46].

103 Fragm. Illustr. 97.

104 Case of Eliza Shipden, in James I’s. reign, Gibson Codex. xviii. 12, quoting Palmer Reports, 296. Hale, in his Precedents and Proceedings, pp. 237, 259, quotes other cases in 1613 and 1636. See Blunt ad loc. and Sparrow Rationale (Oxford, 1840), p. 286.

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105 The Irish Book has again here as in the Marriage Service added a closing portion. The American Book has instead of psalm a ‘hymn,’ drawn from Ps. cxvi,; the suffrages are mutilated, the collect is altered, and more freedom of use is secured by rubrics.

106 Sparrow, Rationale, 291.

107 Injunction of Bishop of Norwich in 1536, cited by Nicholls, Comment on the B. C. P. (1710), Addit. Notes, p.66.

108 The American Book directs that these shall be applied by the Minister and Churchwardens to the relief of distressed women in child bed.

109 The service should not be used for unmarried women, except when signs of penitence have been shown or more strictly except when penance has been done. See Grindal’s Injunction of 1571 (Doc. Ann. i. 370), and the reply of the Bishops at the Savoy, above, p. 187. For the method of penance see Nicholls, Defence of the Doctrine and Discipline, ed. 1715, p. 350.

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110 This title was added in 1661. In the First Prayer Book it was simply, ‘The first day of Lent, commonly called Ash Wednesday;’ and in 1552, ‘A commination against sinners, with certain prayers to be used divers times in the year; the alteration was made in accordance with a suggestion of Bucer, who wished this service to be used at least four times in the year. See above, p. 76. No special days, however, were appointed; but, in the reign of Elizabeth, Archbishop Grindal inquired whether it was used at divers times; and ‘for order sake’ named ‘one of the three Sundays next before Easter, one of the two Sundays next before the feast of Pentecost, and one of the two Sundays next before the feast of the birth of our Lord, over and besides the accustomed reading thereof upon the first day of Lent. Visit. Art. (1576) § 3; Cardwell, Doc. Ann. I. p. 398. It does not seem that these very unsuitable occasions were widely adopted.

111 Bingham, XVIII. ch. i., ii. On the Penitential system of the Middle Ages, see Marshall, Penitential Discipline, in Anglo-Cath. Library. Robertson, Church Hist. II. 237; Hardwick, Middle Age, p. 307.

112 Comp. the Form of the Greater Excommunication (Sarum Manual) in Maskell Mon. Rit. II. pp. 286-305 [III. 309]. This was a long declaration of general curses, ordered to be read four times a year; Bishop Shaxton in 1538 ordered the reading of Deut. XXVIII instead, and thus prepared the way for the Commination. Pocock’s Burnet, vi. 212.

113 See e. g. Gelas. Sacr. 504. Greg. Sacr. 209, for four of the six Sarum Collects.

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114 ‘Post sextam in primis fiat sermo ad populum si placuerit: deinde prostenant se clerici in chore, et dicant septem Psalmos pœnitentiales cum Gloria Patri; et antiphona, Ne reminiscaris . . .
    Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison.
    Pater noster.
    V. Et ne nos inducas in tentationem.
    R. Sed libera nos.
    V. Salvos fac servos tuos et ancillas tuas.
    R. Deus meus sperantes in te.
    V. Mitte eis Domine auxilium de sancto.
    R. Et de Sion tuere eos.
    V. Convertere Domine usque quo:
    R. Et deprecabilis esto super servos tuos.
    V. Adjuva nos Deus salutaris noster:
    R. Et propter gloriam nominis tui, Domine, libera nos, et propitius esto peccatis nostris propter nomen tuum.
    V. Domine exaudi orationem meam.
    R. Et clamor meus ad te veniat
    V. Dominus vobiscum.
    R. Et cum spiritu tuo.
    Oremus. Exaudi, Domine, preces nostras, et confitentium tibi parce peccatis: ut quos conscientiæ reatus accusat, indulgentia tuæ miserationis absolvat. Per Christum.’
    Miss. Sar. 123, or Proc. Sar.

115 ‘Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui misereris omnium, et nihil odisti eorum quæ fecisti . . . .
    Domine Deus noster, qui offensione nostra non vinceris, sed satisfactione placaris: respice, quæsumus, super famulos tuos, qui se tibi graviter peccasse confitentur : tuum est enim absolutionem criminum dare, et veniam præstare peccantibus, qui dixisti pœnitentiam te malle peccatorum, quam mortem: concede ergo, Domine, his famulis tuis, ut tlbi pœnitentiæ excubias celebrent, et, correctis actibus suis, conferri sibi a te sempiterna gaudia gratulentur. Per Christum.’

116 ‘Et iiuerin: canteruur sequentes antiphonæ. Exaudi nos, Domine, quoniam magna est misericordia tua : secundum multitudinem miserationum tuarum respice nos Domine. . . . . Alia antiphona. Juxta vestibulum et altare plorabant sacerdotes et Levitæ ministri Domini, dicentes : Parce, Domine, parce populo tuo; et ne dissipes ora clamantium ad te, Domine.’

117 Fragm. Illustr. 99.


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A form of this service appeared in the Primer of 1545, the Edwardian Primers of one type,1 and again in the Elizabethan Primer of 1559. It was solemnly used as a ‘Memorial Service’ at the death of Henry II. of France on September 8 of that year in S. Paul’s Cathedral. Parker, Barlow and Scory executed the service in surplices and hoods, and on the day following a sermon was preached by Scory, and a solemn communion was celebrated in copes, ‘with a rich hearse,’ and with six great personages to communicate.2

The ‘Dirge’ consists of three parts: the first, corresponding to the old vespers of the dead, comprised three psalms (cxvi. 1-9, xli, cxlvi.), with anthems followed by versicles and two collects; the second, corresponding to the Mattins, comprised three psalms (v., xxvii., xlii.), with anthem, Lord’s Prayer, and three lessons (Job x. 8-13, S. John v. 24-30, 1 Cor. xv. 51-58), each followed by an anthem, so-called; the third part corresponding to Lauds, comprised three psalms (xxx., Song of Hezekiah (Isaiah xxxviii. 10-20), lxxi.) with anthem, followed by Lesser Litany, Lord’s Prayer, suffrages and three collects. The suffrages and collects are very explicit in their prayer for the dead,3 and are similar to those in the burial service of the First Prayer Book.



The Office of the Dead.


These forms, which now stand in the Prayer Book, do not form a service in themselves, but are merely supplemental devotions, to be used as occasion requires at sea.

The first attempt at having special Forms of Prayer for use at sea was made under the Commonwealth, by the Parliament, as a supplement to the Directory, when it was found that the proscribed Book of Common Prayer was used in all ships in which there was any observance of religion at all,4 and that therefore some substitute must be provided.

At the Restoration therefore it was natural that some proper forms for use at sea should be added to the revised Prayer Book. They are not a complete office; nor are they arranged in any particular order: but as additions to the Common Prayer,5 or as particular supplications, or thanksgivings for deliverance from the perils of the sea or from the enemy, they are well adapted to their several occasions.6


Prayers to be used at Sea.


Four special services7 were “annexed to” the Book of Common Prayer, until the year 1859, by the authority of a proclamation customarily issued at the commencement of each reign. This is indeed the only authority for the special service on the anniversary of the Sovereign’s Accession, or for observing the day itself.8 The observance of the three other days (Nov. 5, Jan. 30, May 29) rested upon Acts of Parliament and the services themselves had some ecclesiastical authority. The 5th of November was kept in memory of the Gunpowder Treason, or Papists’ Conspiracy;9 the 29th of May, in memory of the birth and return of the king, Charles II.;10 and the 30th of January as a fasting day in memory of the murder of King Charles I,11 After the Convocation had been completed the revision of the Prayer Book, (1661) the service for the 5th of November, which had been put out by royal authority in 1606 and was now revised, and with it the offices for the 29th of May and the 30th of January,12 were sanctioned. But the offices were not sent to the Parliament, and when they were put forth in 1662 they had only the sanction of Convocation and the Crown.

The Queen’s Accession.



The State Holy Days

Offices for the three days sanctioned by Convocation.



In process of time changes were introduced into them. James I. ordered the 29th of May to be observed in a more general memory of the Restoration of the Royal Family, and accordingly altered the service which had been provided by Convocation for that day.13 And William III. ordered the 4th of November to be observed also in memory of his landing in England, and altered that service accordingly.14 Hence these offices, in the shape in which they were annexed to the Prayer Book,15 had only authority of the Crown.
Altered by Royal Authority.
These services were all constructed upon one model. They began with proper sentences of Scripture: a Canticle was appointed instead of Venite, compiled of single verses from the Psalms: Proper Psalms, and Lessons followed; additional suffrages were provided after the Creed, and long proper Collects instead of the Collect for the day with a long Prayer to be inserted at the end of the Litany: and a proper Collect, Epistle, and Gospel were appointed in the Communion Office.

The only special service now retained is that for the day of the Sovereign’s Accession: the same authority which annexed the other three Forms to the Prayer Book has caused .them to be removed from it, by a,Royal Warrant dated the 17th day of January, 1859. New forms of service for the Accession Day were prepared by Convocation; in deference to a petition signed by a number of liturgical scholars, the old style of service was given up and three Forms of prayer were provided: the first provides psalms, lessons, and prayers which may be used at Mattins and Evensong: the second prescribes a special Collect, Epistle and Gospel to be substituted for those of the day: the third is an independent service consisting of the Te Deum with suffrages and collects. These Convocation rites were authorized by Royal Warrant on Nov. 9, 1901.


Before the Psalter, are inserted A Form of Prayer for the Visitation of Prisoners, taken from the old Irish Prayer Book; A Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving to Almighty God, for the Fruits of the Earth, and all the other blessings of his merciful Providence; to be used yearly on the first Thursday in November, or on such other day as shall be appointed by the Civil Authority (taken from the “Proposed Book”); and also, Forms of Prayer to be used in Families, taken from those composed by Bishop Gibson of London.

Construction of the Services

1 See above, p. 126.

2 Heylyn, Ecciesia Restaurata (ed, Eccl. Hist. Soc.), ii. 305.

3 Private Prayers of Q. Eliz. (Parker Soc.), pp. 57-67.

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4 See above, p. 162; Lathbury, Hist. of Convoc. pp. 497, 498.

5 The following is the first of the ARTICLES OF WAR:— ‘ Officers are to cause Public Worship, according to the Liturgy of the Church of England, to be solemnly performed in their ships, and take care that prayers and preaching by the chaplains be performed diligently, and that the Lord’s day be observed.’

6 These forms are retained in the American Prayer Book, with the necessary changes of expression, such as ships of war for Her Majesty’s Navy, &c. The Irish revised Prayer Book also has the forms, but omitting all direct mention of the Navy, and shortening the first or daily Prayer, as for use in any single ship; yet retaining the Prayers to be said before a Fight at Sea against an Enemy.

7 See The Original Services for the State Holy Days with Documents relating to the same, by the Rev. A. P. Percival (1838).

8 There is no Act of Parliament enjoining the observance of this day; but it has been observed with special prayers in every reign since the Reformation. The Service (1576, 1578) is printed in Elizabethan Liturgical Services (Parker Soc.) pp. 548 and ff. Canon 11. of 1640 enjoined the observance of the day, and recognised ‘the particular form of prayer appointed by authority for that day and purpose’ (Cardwell, Synodalia, I. p. 392; Percival, p. 25); but a later statute of 1661 (13 Car. II. c. 12) forbade the enforcement of these canons (Percival, p. 8). A new form was compiled by command of James II.; some considerable alterations were made in the time of Queen Anne; at the accession of George I. the Prayer for Unity was added, and the First Lesson, Josh. i. 1-9, was substituted for Prov. viii, 13-36. Cardwell, Conferences, p. 385, note; Lathbury, Hist. of Convoc. pp. 387 and ff.

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9 Stat. 3 Jac. I. c. 1; Percival, p. 17.

10 Stat. 12 Car. II. c. 14; ib. p. 20.

11 Stat. 12 Car. II. c. 30; ib. p. 19.

12 Two offices for the 30th of January had already appeared one in 1661 and one in January 1662. The former of these contained a petition in allusion to the martyrs: ‘that we may be made worthy to receive benefit by their prayers, which they, in communion with the Church Catholic, offer up’ unto thee for that part of it here militant.’ This was laid aside, and a second form was issued for use in 1662, which again was superseded when the Convocation issued their forms of service later on in the year. Cardwell, Synodalia, ii. 671. Lathbury, Hist. of Convoc. pp. 305 and ff., and Hist. of Prayer Book, p. 334. Blunt 703.

13 ‘Some alterations were made in the services for the 30th of January and the 20th of May by the Bishops, by authority of the Crown, neither the Convocation nor the Parliament being consulted.’ Lathbury, Hist. of Convoc. p. 313.

14 Percival, p. 15. It was revised by Patrick. See Lathbury, p. 333, 334.

15 The particulars of the extenstive changes introduced into these offices may be seen in Mr. Percival’s. comparative arrangement of them, as sanctioned by Convocation, and as commonly printed.

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