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The Didache, in Greek
Apology of Judstin Martyr, in Greek
The Didache
1 Justin Mart. Apol. i. 67. Cp. chapters 65 and 66. See also the description of the service at the reception of converts, ibid. p. 97.

From Pliny’s Letter to Trajan (A.D. 112).

Adfirmabant autem hanc fuisse summam vel culpæ suæ vel erroris, quod essent soliti stato die ante lucem convenire, carmenque Christo quasi deo dicere secum invicem, seque sacramenta non in scelus aliquod obstringere sed ne furta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria committerent, ne fidem fallerent, ne depositum appellati abnegarent: quibus peractis morem sibi discedendi fuisse, rursusque coeundi ad capiendum cibum, promiscuum tamen et innoxium: quod ipsum facere desisse post edictum meum quo secundum mandata tua hetaerias esse vetueram.2


2 Epist. x. 96.


The relation ‘of the Gallican customs and rites to the Roman customs and rites is a very doubtful point. All authorities agree that there is a clear distinction between them, and recent investigation and discussion, has only tended to accentuate the contrast: (i) by adding to the evidence for the widespread prevalence of non-Roman ways, and (ii) by reducing all these non-Roman ways to one type, and so reducing the conflict of rites to a duel of Gallican versus Roman. It is clear that at the end of the IVth century Rome and its immediate surroundings formed in liturgical matters an island in the midst of a sea of Gallican customs and rites.

Three principal explanations of this have been propounded. 1. Formerly it was suggested that an’ oriental type of Liturgy came with the stream of Asiatic influence from Ephesus to Gaul, and spread from Lyons and similar centres through the West: this theory now finds few if any supporters.3 2. It has been suggested by Duchesne that the oriental features came to Italy with Auxentius, the Cappadocian Bishop of Milan in the middle of the IVth century and spread from there. No doubt there is much to recommend this suggestion.4 3. It has recently been maintained afresh that the Gallican Liturgy is the old Roman Liturgy,5 but that changes occurred within Rome itself, which resulted in the discrepancy which is revealed by documents of the IVth century, such as Innocent’s letter to Decentius.6 4. The explanation set forth in the text is not quite any of these: but more akin to the last than to the first two views. So far as the Liturgy goes it may be true that Rome innovated, while the rest of the West preserved a type of Liturgy more akin to the primitive type, and including features which now seem oriental, though really they are simply primitive. But the problem is wider than the question of Liturgy: it touches Baptism, Ordination, and other points.7 The difference can hardly be due to the changes of one era, for while the Gallican influence in respect of Liturgy seems to have been conservative, and to have kept an older type of Liturgy than Rome, in other respects, e.g. ordination services, it seems to have been radical, and to have led conservative Rome somewhat unwillingly to accept Gallican novelties.

3 For the arguments against it see Duchesne, p. 85.

4 Ibid. 88. Revue d’ Histoire (Jan. 1900), v. 31 and ff.

5 Paléogr. Musicale, v.

6 See above, p. 449.

7 For these see below, pp. 564, 571, 652 and ff.

The solution of the difficulty probably lies in the fact that in early days little interest was taken in Liturgical customs, and, churches in various localities developed, without comparing notes with one another, and without much of self-criticism or self-consciousness. Rome in particular was using its unique influence to secure agreement in other and more important matters, and liturgical uniformity was little thought of. Only occasionally when the discrepancies were emphasised, as in the dealings of Innocent and Decentius, some naive surprise was expressed on both sides. But Rome was still content to reserve its influence and pressure for other matters in the main: at a later date, when it felt itself free to direct its attention and influence to the liturgical divergencies, the effect was very clear, and by steady pressure the Roman customs either absorbed or else drove out the Gallican.

It was generally the music which paved the way for the acceptance of the Roman Service-books. The Gallican churches had their own sacramentaries and lectionaries, their own method of psalmody and canonical hours, but they had nothing at all comparable to the Roman chant: it is not surprising therefore to find that the Antiphonals did the work of pioneers. This is the case in the contest between the Celtic and the Italian methods in England, as also at a later date in the movement in France by which the Gallican rites disappeared.

The history of the triumph of the Gregorian Sacramentary is typical. First came the Roman music to Metz, Rouen, &c., and then the Gelasian Sacramentary arose as an adaptation of Roman customs to Gallican use: this did much to abolish or absorb the old Gallican customs, though it was only one, and probably the most Roman one, of many similar compromises. Then later at the Frankish Court the music again effected its entrance, and opened the door to the Roman rites: Charlemagne, with his zeal for Rome and for uniformity, accepted the pure Roman Sacramentary as Pope Hadrian sent it, but did not promulgate it through his empire until it had received from Alcuin’s hands the appendix which should reconcile it to what remained of the Gallican customs, and reconcile the people to its acceptance. Thus the Roman rite made terms with the Gallican,and superseded it.



III. Arrangement of the Scottish (1764) with Bishop Seabury’s (1786) and the American Office (1892).
SCOTTISH, 1764; BP. SEABURY, 1786.
After the Preface, ending with Sanctus.

Then shall the Priest, kneeling down’ at the Lord’s Table, say, in the name of all those who shall receive the Communion, this Prayer following.
    We do not presume, &c.

Then the Presbyter, standing at such a part of the holy table as he may with the most ease and decency use both his hands,
  When the Priest, standing before the Table, hath so ordered the Bread and Wine, that he may with the more readiness and decency break the Bread before the people, and take the Cup into his hands, he

shall say the Prayer of Consecration, as followeth.

All glory be to thee, Almighty God, our heavenly Father, for that thou of thy tender mercy didst give Thine [thy, S. (1764)] only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the cross for our redemption;

who (by his own oblation of himself once offered) made   who made there (by his one oblation of Himself once offered) [A. and 1786.]
a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world; and did institute, and in his holy Gospel command us to continue a perpetual memory [memorial (1764)] of that his precious death and sacrifice until his coming again: For in the night that [in which A.] he was betrayed, he took bread . . .

The Institution.

Wherefore, O Lord, and heavenly Father, according to the institution of thy dearly beloved Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, we thy humble servants do celebrate and make here before thy divine majesty with these thy holy gifts, which we now offer unto thee, the memorial thy Son hath commanded us to make; having in remembrance his blessed passion, and precious death, his mighty resurrection, and glorious ascension; rendering unto thee most hearty thanks for the innumerable benefits procured unto us by the same.
The Oblation.
And we most humbly beseech thee, O merciful Father, to hear us, and of thy almighty goodness vouchsafe to bless and sanctify with thy word and Holy Spirit, these thy gifts and creatures of bread

The Invocation.

and wine, that they may become the body and blood of thy most dearly beloved Son. [d. 2.]
  and wine; that we, receiving them according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ’s holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of his most blessed Body and Blood. [d. 3.]
And we earnestly desire thy fatherly goodness, mercifully to accept this our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, most humbly beseeching thee to grant, that by the merits and death of thy Son Jesus Christ, and through faith in his blood, we, and all thy whole Church, may obtain remission of our sins, and all other benefits of his passion. And here we [humbly (1764)] offer and present unto thee, 0 Lord, ourselves, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy and lively [living A.] sacrifice unto thee, [humbly (1786 and A.)] beseeching thee, that whosoever [we and all others who (1786 and A.)] shall be partakers of this holy Communion, may worthily receive the most precious body and blood of thy Son Jesus Christ, [and (1764)] be filled with thy grace and heavenly benediction, and made one body with him, that he may dwell in them [us A.] and they [we A.] in him, And although we are unworthy, through our manifold sins, to offer unto thee any sacrifice; yet we beseech thee to accept this our bounden duty and service, not weighing our merits, but pardoning our offences, through Jesus [Jesus Christ, (Seabury, 1786, and A.)] our Lord: by whom, and with whom, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honour and glory be unto thee, O Father Almighty, world without end. Amen.

Let us pray for the whole state of Christ’s Church.



Here may be sung a Hymn.

[In the American Office, the Prayer “for the whole state of Christ’s Church militant” follows the Offertory, and the placing the bread and wine upon the Table.]



BP. SEABURY, 1786.
Almighty and everliving God, who by thy holy Apostle hast taught us to make prayers and supplications, and to give thanks for all men; We humbly beseech thee most mercifully to accept our alms and oblations, and to receive these our prayers, which we offer unto thy divine Majesty; beseeching thee to inspire continually the universal church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord; and grant that all they that [who, Bp. Seabury, 1786] do confess thy holy name, may agree in the truth of thy holy word, and live in unity and godly love. We beseech thee also to save and defend all Christian Kings, Princes, and Governors, and especially thy servant our King, that under him we may be godly and quietly governed: and grant unto his whole council, and to all who are put in authority under him, that they may truly and indifferently minister justice, to the punishment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance of thy true religion and virtue. Give grace, O heavenly Father, to all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, that they may both by their life and doctrine set forth thy true and lively word, and rightly and duly administer thy holy sacraments: and to all thy people give thy heavenly grace, that with meek heart, and due reverence, they may hear and receive thy holy word, truly serving thee in holiness and righteousness all the days of their life. And we commend especially to thy merciful goodness the congregation which is here assembled in thy name, to celebrate the commemoration of the most precious death and sacrifice of thy Son and our Saviour Jesus Christ. And we most humbly beseech thee of thy goodness, O Lord, to comfort and succour all those who in this transitory life are in trouble, sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity. And we also bless thy holy name for all thy servants, who, having finished their course in faith, do now rest from their labours. And we yield unto thee most high praise and hearty thanks, for the wonderful grace and virtue declared in all thy saints, who have been the choice vessels of thy grace, and the lights of the world in their several generations: most humbly beseeching thee to give us grace to follow the example of their stedfastness in thy faith; and obedience to thy holy commandments, that at the day of the general resurrection, we, and all they who are of the mystical body of thy Son, may be set on his right hand, and hear that his most joyful voice, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: Grant this, O Father, for Jesus Christ’s sake, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen.


[and Governors; and grant that they, and all who are in authority, may truly and impartially minister (Bp. Seabury. 1786)]

[from their labours: yielding unto thee most high praise and hearty thanks for the wonderful goodness and virtue (Bp. Seabury, 1786)]


Then shall the Presbyter say

As our Saviour Christ hath commanded and taught us; we are bold to say,

Our Father . . . For thine is the kingdom . . . Amen.


Then the Presbyter [Priest (1786)] shall say to them that come to receive the holy communion, this invitation.

Ye that do truly and earnestly repent you of your sins, and are in love and charity with your neighbours, and intend to lead a new life, following the commandments of God, and walking from henceforth in his holy ways:

Draw near,
  Draw near with faith,

and take this holy sacrament to your comfort; and make your humble confession to Almighty God.

Then shall this general confession be made, by the

people along with the Presbyter; he first kneeling down.   people, along with the Priest; all humbly kneeling upon their knees.
Almighty God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ . .

through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Then shall the Presbyter,


through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Then shall the Priest,


or the Bishop (being present), stand up, and turning himself to the people, pronounce the absolution, as followeth.

Almighty God, our heavenly Father, who . . .

Then shall the Presbyter also say,
  Then shall the Priest say,

Hear what comfortable words our Saviour Christ saith unto all that truly turn to him.

Come unto me, all ye that labour, and are

heavy laden, and I will give you rest.

heavy laden, and I will refresh you.

Private ejaculation.
Refresh, O Lord, thy servant wearied with the burden of sin.

God so loved the world, that he gave . . .

Private ejaculation.
Lord, I believe in thy Son Jesus Christ, and let this faith purify me from all iniquity.


Hear also what St. Paul saith.

This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation . . .


Private ejaculation.
I embrace with all thankfulness that salvation that Jesus Christ has brought into the world.


Hear also what St. John saith,

If any man sin, we have an advocate . . .

Then shall the Presbyter,

Private ejaculation.
Intercede for me, O blessed Jesu! that my sins may be pardoned through the merits of thy death.

Then shall the Priest,


turning him to the altar, kneel down, and say, in the name of all them that shall communicate, this collect of humble access to the holy communion, as followeth.

We do not presume . . . that our sinful bodies may be made clean by his most sacred body, and our souls washed through His most precious blood, and that we may evermore dwell in him, and he in us. Amen.


SCOTTISH, 1764; BP. SEABURY, 1786.

Then shall the Bishop, if he be present, or else the Presbyter [the Priest (1786)] that celebrateth, first receive the communion in both kinds himself, and next deliver it to other Bishops, Presbyters, and Deacons, (if there be any present,) and after to the people in due order, all humbly kneeling. And when he receiveth himself, or delivereth the sacrament of the body of Christ to others, he shall say,



Then shall the Priest first receive the’ Communion in both kinds himself, and proceed to : deliver the same to the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, in like manner, (if any be present,) and after that to the People also in order, into their hands all devoutly kneeling. And sufficient opportunity shall be given to those present to communicate. And when he delivereth the Bread he shall say,

The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve

thy soul and body unto everlasting life.

Here the person receiving shall say, Amen.

And the Presbyter or Minister that [And when the Priest (1786)] receiveth the cup himself, or delivereth it to others, shall say this benediction, [he shall say, (1786)]


thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Take and eat this in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith, with thanksgiving,

And the Minister who delivereth the Cup shall say,

The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, I preserve

thy soul and body unto everlasting life.

Here the person receiving shall say, Amen.

  thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Drink this in remembrance that Christ’s blood was shed: for thee, and be thankful.
If the consecrated bread or wine
be all spent
  be spent
before all have communicated,
the Presbyter [Priest (1786)]
  the Priest
is to consecrate more, according to the form [before A.] prescribed.
beginning at the words,
All glory be to thee, &c., and ending with the words,
that they may become the body and blood of thy most dearly beloved Son.
  beginning at — All glory be to, thee, Almighty God — and ending with these words — partakers of his most blessed Body and Blood.
When all have communicated,

he that celebrates shall go to the Lord’s table, and cover with a fair linen cloth that which remaineth of the consecrated elements, and then say,

Having now received the precious body and blood of Christ, let us give thanks to our Lord God, who hath graciously vouchsafed to admit us to the ·participation of his holy mysteries; and let us beg of him grace to perform our vows, and to persevere in our good resolutions; and that being made [resolutions; that being made (1786)] holy, we may obtain everlasting life, through the merits of the all- sufficient sacrifice of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.


the Minister shall return to the Lord’s Table, and reverently place upon it what remaineth of the consecrated Elements, covering the same with a fair linen cloth.

Then shall the minister say the Lord’s Prayer, the People repeating after him every Petition.

Our Father, . . .
for ever and ever. Amen.





Then the Presbyter [Priest (1786)) shall say this collect of thanksgiving as followeth.
  After shall be said as followeth.
Almighty and everliving God, we most heartily thank thee, for that thou dost vouchsafe to feed us, who have duly received these holy mysteries, with the spiritual food of the most precious body and blood of thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ; and dost assure us thereby of thy favour and goodness towards us, and that we are very members incorporate in the mystical body of thy Son, which is the blessed company of all faithful people, and are also heirs through hope of thy everlasting kingdom, by the merits of
his most precious death and passion. We now most humbly

  his most precious death and passion of thy dear Son. And we most humbly  
beseech thee, O heavenly Father, so to assist us with thy grace
and Holy Spirit, that we may continue in that holy communion and fellowship,
  that we may continue in that holy fellowship,
and do all such good works as Thou hast
commanded us to walk in,
  prepared for us to walk in,
through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom,
with the Father [with Thee (1786)]
  with thee
and, the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end. Amen.
Then shall be said or sung, Gloria in excelsis, as followeth.
  Then shall be said or sung, all standing, Gloria in excelsis; or some proper Hymn from the selection.
Glory be to God in the highest, and in earth
  Glory be to God on high, and on earth
peace, good will towards men. We praise thee, we bless thee, we worship thee, we glorify thee, we give thanks to thee for thy great glory, O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father
Almighty; and to thee; O God; the only begotten Son Jesu Christ; and to thee, 0 God, the Holy Ghost.
O Lord, the only begotten Son Jesu[s] Christ; O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, who [that A.] takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us.
    Thou that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us.

Thou that takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou that sittest at the right hand of God the Father, have mercy upon us.
    For thou only art holy, thou only art the Lord, thou only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the glory of God the Father.


Amen. [Amen (1786)].

Then the Presbyter [Priest, (1786)]
or Bishop if he be present,



Then the priest

(the Bishop if he be present)


shall let them declare with this blessing.

The peace of God ...



Key to the numbers used in the following Table, to mark the order of the parts in certain English Communion Offices.
1 The Lord’s Prayer, and Collect following.
2 The Ten Commandments, with Response.
3 The Gospel Summary of the Law.
3* The second Collect at the end of the Communion Office,- ‘O Almighty Lord,’ &c.
4 Collect for the King.  
5 The Collect of the Day, with the Epistle and Gospel.  
5* ’Glory be to thee, 0 Lord,’ said before the Gospel;
5** The same, with ‘Thanks be to thee, O Lord after the Gospel.  
6 The Nicene Creed.
7 The Offertory Sentences:  
8 The Alms presented and placed upon the holy Table;
8* — presented . . . with the words ‘Blessed be thou,’ &c., from 1 Chron. xxix. 10 . . . ;  
8** — put into the poor men’s box.  
9 Prayer for the whole state of the Church militant on earth;
10 with Praise for all Saints departed.  
11 Exhortation at certain times to non-Communicants, or negligent.
12 The Exhortation to the Communicants.  
13 The Invitation :— ‘Ye that do truly,’ &c.  
14 The General Confession, and Absolution.
15 The Comfortable Words.
16 Sursum corda, The Preface ending with Sanctus :
16* — the same, when Sanctus is printed as a separate clause, that the people should then join with the Priest in singing it.
17 The Prayer of Consecration.  
  a The opening Address.
  b The Recitation of the Institution.
  c The Oblation:— Wherefore, &c.
  d The Invocation:— ‘ Hear us,’ or ‘ And we most humbly beseech thee to hear us . . . and vouchsafe to bless and sanctify, with thy Word and Holy Spirit, these thy gifts and creatures of bread and wine’ . . .
  d.1 ’— that they may become the body and blood of thy most dearly beloved Son’ . .  
  d.2 ’— that they may be unto us the body and blood of’ . . .
  d.3 ’Hear us . . . and grant, that we receiving these thy creatures of bread and wine . . . may be partakers of his most blessed body and blood’ . . .
  e The Prayer for acceptance, with the offering of ourselves. (The first Form of Post-Communion Prayer.)

18 The Lord’s Prayer.  
19 Prayer of humble Access :— ‘ We do not presume,’ &c.
20 Communion, with the two clauses;  
20.1 — with the first clause only;
20.2 — with the second clause only.
20.3 The person receiving shall say, Amen.
21 Introduction to Thanksgiving :— ‘ Having now received,’ &c.
22 Thanksgiving :— ‘ Almighty and everliving God,’ &c. (Our second Form of Post-Communion Prayer.)
23 Gloria in excelsis;  
23* — omitting the interpolated clause.  
24 The Blessing.

Communion comparison table

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