|The Book of Common Prayer|
A NEW HISTORY OF
THE BOOK OF
WITH A RATIONALE OF ITS OFFICES
ON THE BASIS OF THE FORMER WORK BY
REVISED AND REWRITTEN BY
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED
A HISTORY OF THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER. Bv FRANCIS PROCTOR,
First Edition, 1855. Second Edition, 1856. Reprinted,
1857, 1859, 1861, 1864, 1867, 1869. Third
Edition, 1870, Reprinted,
1872,.1874 (twice), 1876, 1878, 1880 with
1884, 1889 with additions, 1892, 1898.
PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION
NEARLY half a century has passed since the first edition of Mr. Procter's History of the Book of Common Prayer was published: it has been a period full of an enthusiasm for liturgical studies which is almost, if not quite, without parallel. While these facts speak eloquently of the solidity and value of Mr. Procter's work, they also explain amply the reasons why it was necessary that it should undergo considerable change. In fact, while the general outline and plan has been retained, the greater part has been rewritten. In the first section of the book the history of the Edwardine Prayer Books has especially needed alteration, in view of much that has been discovered and printed since Mr. Procter wrote: the later history has been less altered. In the case of the Elizabethan Prayer Book the facts are still so scantily known, and in the later times, they were already so fully known, that there has been little development of knowledge; while the relation of the controversies of the eighteenth century to the Prayer Book has not yet been properly investigated at all; it is a field which certainly proved barren of results, and it would probably prove barren of interest also.
But, beyond this revision of the history of the English Prayer Book since the Reformation, the attempt has been made to deal more fully with the history, both of the old Service-books, of which it was the lineal descendant, and of the old Services, which it contained in a revised form; this has necessitated a Dew opening chapter to the first part of the book and the entire recasting of the second part.
While much, therefore, of the former work has been superseded, and much new matter has been added, very little has been simply omitted. The section dealing with hymns and metrical psalms no longer reappears, since full information on such points is now available in the Dictionary of Hymnology. Also the account of the adaptations made from the Prayer Book for the use of Nonconformist congregations is dropped, because it was very incomplete, and a full treatment of the subject would have required more space than was available or desirable in a text-book of this character. But apart from these sections there has been little or nothing omitted which could still retain its place: and, if occasionally this conservatism has occasioned a certain want of proportion in the treatment of one or another topic, this seemed on the whole less objectionable than that readers should fail to find here any genuine pieces of information which hitherto they have been accustomed to find in their “Procter."
In attempting to cover such an immense field of history, it is inevitable in a book of this scale that much should be stated very briefly and dogmatically, which would demand, if space allowed, a much fuller discussion or a much more balanced and reserved kind of statement. Such brevity and dogmatism is all the more deplorable in a study such as that of liturgical history, in which 'again and again evidence is painfully deficient, even upon points of first-class importance, and where deductions have to be drawn and theories constructed from data, which are only too lamentably insufficient. The main function of the Notes in a textbook of this sort is to supplement the brevity or deficiencies of the text, partly by giving references to the sources of information, partly by referring to other books, where the points in question are more fully discussed; sometimes also by sounding a warning note that the statement in the text is very disputable, by citing objections to it or giving alternative theories; and occasionally by discussing points in detail when they are not too intricate, or when it was impossible to give a reference to any adequate discussion of them elsewhere. There are a few cases where I have been obliged to state curtly conclusions, to which I have been led by independent investigation of MSS. and other primary sources, without being able either to refer to other books for more detailed information or to give at length the grounds or sources of my conclusions. With these few cases excepted, I hope that the Notes will enable the student to verify all the statements in the text, and to pursue the subject further and in greater detail.
My first thanks are due to Mr. Procter himself (if indeed it is not an anomaly to thank him in a book which is still largely his own) for the generous confidence which has led him not only to suffer me to set about the task of revision unhampered and unfettered, but also to be ready in every way to forward and facilitate the work. Among the many debts which I owe to friends and fellow students I must especially acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. Hart, of Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, U.S.A., for revising the account of the American Prayer Book, with which he had adorned the recent editions of Mr. Procter's book, and to Bishop Hall, of Vermont, U.S.A., for his assistance in the same matter. The help with proofs and special points of the book which has been given by the Rev. F. E. Brightman and the Rev. W. C. Bishop represents only a very small part of my wider obligations to them for knowledge of the subject in general. My earliest and in many ways therefore my chiefest debt has been already recorded in the Dedication. Further thanks are due to the Rev. H. P. Currie and the Rev. T. A. Lacey for help and criticism, and to Miss Gertrude Simpson for lightening the labour of the Index.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND IMPRESSION
A CONSIDERABLE number of corrections have been made, many of them of small moment, but some containing matter of such interest or importance that it is advisable to mention them here.
(i) Mr. Brightman has pointed out the influence of the Cologne Antididagma on the Liturgy of 1549, and a brief reference to this has been inserted. (ii) A mention of Calvin's criticism of the First Prayer Book is reinserted, and in its right place: it was formerly dated 1548, but this is clearly a year too early, and the letter by being placed in 1549 becomes an intelligible and valuable comment on the new book. (iii) The course of the revision in J 5 52 is made more clear by a letter of Peter Martyr which has not hitherto attracted the attention that it deserves. (iv) The account of the coronation of Elizabeth is corrected to the best form of compromise which can be made between the conflicting temporary accounts. And (v) a far clearer statement of the genesis of the Elizabethan Book is given. Dr. Gee has lately put forth a new theory on this point,1 but while acknowledging how much. he has done to clear up the subject, I cannot but feel that a searching scrutiny of the records leads to a different conclusion, which when stated, moreover, carries more conviction with it.2 (vi) I am convinced that there is sufficient evidence, following the line of the arguments of the Bishop of Salisbury,3 that the Elizabethan Prayer Book was held not to forbid but rather to permit under certain restrictions the communicating the sick with the reserved sacrament; the passage to which I have referred in Hill's Communicant instructed leaves no room for doubt on this point, and it follows the line of Calvin's letter, also cited there. And viewed in the light of this evidence, the language of Jewel and Sparrow, and perhaps even the puzzling provisions of the Latin Book of 1560, for the first time become intelligible. It is impossible here to set out the whole argument, but I shall hope to return to it hereafter.
These are some of the principal alterations and changes that have been made. References have been added to several books which have appeared since the first edition, and the List of Principal Authorities has been greatly enlarged, in the hope that it may serve as a guide to farther study. I have profited much by the criticisms of reviewers and the kindly correction of friends: to them a large number of minor alterations are due, and I beg to return them my best thanks.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD IMPRESSION
THE opportunity of a new edition has been utilized for the introduction of a number of small corrections and a few additions. There are further two alterations which, being of a somewhat larger nature, may be specially noted here. First, a clearer decision is expressed in favour of the traditional view that the Ornaments' Rubric refers to the First Prayer Book (p. 362), and a more accurate account is given of the circumstances in which it came out (p. 105). Secondly, on p. 499 the description of the English Ante-Communion Service has been materially altered. Many thanks are clue to kind friends and strangers who have pointed out mistakes both great and small.
W. H. F.
GENERAL LITERARY HISTORY OF THE BOOK.
THE SERVICE-BOOKS IN PRE-REFORMATION TIMES
I. Primitive Service-books: Medieval Service-books and their origin: Conflicting Rites and Uses: The position in England. II. Sarum Service-books, Ritual and Ceremonial: Books of private devotion: The spread of Sarum Use.
1. Lists of Service-books.
THE EARLIER STAGES OF CHANGE
Foreign reforms: Quinones' Breviary: Hermann's Consultation: Changes under Henry VIII: the Litany and Primers, &c. : Changes under Edward VI. : Homilies and Injunctions, The Order of the Communion, &c.
1. Edwardian Choir-books
THE FIRST PRAYER BOOK
Its Authors: The legislation in Parliament and Convocation: Its objects and character: Its acceptance and refusal: The Ordinal: The Prayer Book in Ireland.
The Book of Common Prayer Noted
THE SECOND PRAYER BOOK
The failure of Uniformity: Destruction of altars: Dissatisfaction of the Reform party: Disputes about Vestments: Influence of Foreigners: Bucer's Censura and Martyrs View: Revision in Convocation and Parliament: Changes made: Publication delayed: The Black Rubric: Fate of the Book.
Influence of Foreigners.
THE ELIZABETHAN PRAYER BOOK
Queen Mary's reign: The history abroad: Accession of Elizabeth: First steps to revive the Reformation: Revision by a Committee of Divines: Overruling by the Court and Parliament: The changes made: Acceptance of the Book: Royal Visitation: The Latin Book: Ireland: Additional services: Amendment of Kalendar and Lectionary: Subsequent history in Convocation and Parliament.
1. Versions of the B. C. P.
THE PRAYER BOOK FROM THE ACCESSION OF JAMES I. TO THE DEATH OF CHARLES I.
Puritan objections: The Millenary Petition: The Hampton Court Conference: Revision: The changes: In Scotland, abortive efforts: New projects under Charles I.: The Scottish Book of 1637 : Parliamentary action in England: The Prayer Book suppressed: The Directory substituted.
THE PRAYER BOOK IN THE REIGN OF CHARLES II.
The Declaration from Breda: Nonconformist plans: The Book restored : Negotiations and the Savoy Conference: Revision by Convocation: Parliamentary action: The alterations: Further action: In Scotland and Ireland: New Versions.
The Work of Revision
THE B. C. P. SINCE THE LAST REVISION
Attempted Revision under William III.: The proposed alterations: Rejected by Convocation: The XVIIIth and XIXth centuries: Late attempts at Revision and changes actually effected, 1871-1879: Present position.
1. The Nonjurors' Service
1. Hour Services from the Sarum Breviary
THE SOURCES AND RATIONALE OF THE OFFICES.
INTRODUCTORY MATTER, TITLE, PREFACES AND KALENDAR
I. Title Page. II. Prefaces: Daily Recitation: Of ceremonies: III. Origin of Divine Service: Psalmody: The Gloria Patri: Lectionary: IV. Foundations of the Kalendar: Moveable and Immoveable Feasts: In England: Sarum Kalendar: Church Seasons: Revision of the Kalendar: Preliminary Drafts and Prayer Book Kalendar : Prayer Book Lectionary.
1. Methods of Psalmody
MORNING AND EVENING PRAYER
1. The Origin of Divine Service: The Hours of Prayer.
II. Their Structure. III. Structural Modifications: Cranmer's Drafts.
IV. Introductory Rubrics, the Chancels and the Ornaments. V. Morning
Prayer: The New Introduction: The Old Introduction: The Invitatory and
Psalmody: The Lessons and Canticles: The Suffrages and Collects: The
Closing Prayers. VI. Evening Prayer: Psalms and Hymns.
THE LITANY AND THE OCCASIONAL PRAYERS AND THANKSGIVINGS
Origin of the term: Nature of the Service and transformation of it:
In England, medieval use: The English Litany: The invocations, deprecations,
obsecrations, and intercessions; Versicles; Intercession in time of war:
Textual changes: Use of the Litany: Occasional Prayers: Thanksgivings.
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE LORD'S SUPPER OR HOLY COMMUNION
1. Primitive Liturgies: Early documents and structure: Contrast of East and West. II. The Roman Canon: Contrast of Anaphoras. III. The English Canon of of 1549: Compared with the Latin. IV. The Roman Liturgy: The three main elements, the Chants, the Lessons, and the Prayers: Additional devotions. V. The First Prayer Book. VI. The Second Book. VII. The present Order: The Rubrics: The Preparation: The Offertory: The Exhortations: The Order of the Communion : The Anaphora : The Administration: The Closing: The Rubrics: Rationale.
1. Early Testimonies to the Eucharist
THE COLLECTS, EPISTLES, GOSPELS, AND PROPER LESSONS
The two parts of the year: Nature of a Collect: Structure and use: Advent: Christmas: Epiphany: Lent: Holy Week: Easter: Ascension: Whitsuntide: Trinity: Saints' Days.
The Collects for the Sundays after Trinity
THE BAPTISMAL SERVICES, WITH CATECHISM AND CONFIRMATION
I. Public Baptism: Primitive custom: The early nucleus: Patristic evidence: Rise and fall of the Catechumenate: Roman service in the Seventh Century: The Sarum Rite: Revision, and changes in 1552: The Present service: Rubrics and Prayers, Gospel, Address and Catechism: The Baptism and close. II. Private Baptism: Lay Baptism: The supplementary service. III. Adult Baptism. IV. The Catechism. V. Confirmation.
THE OCCASIONAL SERVICES
General character. I. Matrimony: History: The Sarum Service and the B. C. P. II. Visitation of the Sick: Unction. III. Communion. IV. Burial Service: The medieval cycle of services: Adaptation and subsequent changes. V. Churching. VI. Commination.
1. The office of the Dead
Early History in N. T. and early times. II. Medieval Latin services:
Roman and Gallican: The fusion and late developments. III. The Ordering
of Deacons and Priests: Pontifical and Prayer Book: Influences evident
in the changes: The Revision. IV. Consecration of Bishops: Pontifical
and Prayer Book: Revision.
Representative and comprehensive character of B. C. P. : Comprehension, not Compromise: The evasiveness of Puritans: False interpretations, both traditional and legal: Liturgical freedom for good as well as for evil : Its proper limitations.
A LIST OF PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES.
Older editions of these Liturgies are-
Many modern Editions are available of the existing-
THE ANCIENT SACRAMENTARIES.
These are collected in-
THE OLD ROMAN ORDINES.
THE LIBER ANTIPHONARIUS MISSARUM,
THE LIBER RESPONSALlS,
LATER MEDIEVAL TEXTS.
For collections of Texts now in progress see-
Older collections of Texts are-
AND IRISH BOOKS.
[C] POST-REFORMATION TEXTS
[D.] BOOKS ELUCIDATORY OF THE PRAYER BOOK
[E.] HISTORICAL BOOKS, &c., BEARING ON THE HISTORY.
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