Dealing with Modernism

1730 First books appear questioning the literal interpretation of the Bible.
1791 Riots in Birmingham against Anglo-Unitarian scientist, Joseph Priestly.
1839 Charles Lyell, a devout Anglican, publishes "Elements of Geology", which forms the basis of modern earth science. Evangelicals are horrified by Lyell's rejection of a literal reading of Genesis in favor of "uniformitarianism". This begins the era of major changes in views of man and universe.
1859 Charles Darwin, an Anglican, publishes "Origin of Species". Practically all scientists studying natural history are convinced. The public is fascinated. Evolution controversies follow.
1863 (France) Renan's "Life of Jesus", based on historical and literary study of the Gospel accounts.
1863 Bishop J.W. Colenso of Natal, who favors the modernist approach to scripture (and believes in Black equality), is tried and convicted of heresy by the English bishops.
1865 Thomas Huxley (who coined the word "agnostic" to describe himself) humiliates Bishop Samuel Wilberforce in an evolution debate. Wilberforce eventually apologizes to Darwin.
1866 Hymn "The Church's One Foundation" is written against Colenso.
1867 First Lambeth conference is called to resolve the Colenso affair.
1890 Charles Gore writes "Lux Mundi", suggesting an Anglo-Catholic can accept historical and literary criticism of the Bible. Response is generally favorable.
1906 (Germany) Albert Schweitzer's book, "Quest of the Historical Jesus", demolishes the "liberal" pictures of Jesus Christ and forms the basis for all future objective study of Christian origins.
1910 "The Fundamentals" series of booklets begins publication in the U.S. Emphasis is on literal inerrancy of the entire Bible, rejection of historical and literary criticism of scripture and contemporary understandings of the natural world, and the belief that those not sharing this viewpoint are not really Christians. (This is "fundamentalism".) Anglicans are generally indifferent or mildly hostile.
1913 "Foundations", by a team of Oxford scholars, demonstrates that increasing acceptability of modernism.
1960 The bizarre evolutionary "gospel" of Tielhard de Chardin, priest-paleontologist who ultimately denies personal responsibility or personal immortality, is receiving attention from Anglicans and others.
1961 Contemporary study of the Bible no longer presents a problem for most Anglicans. See Bishop Stephen Neill's "Interpretation of the New Testament 1861-1961".
1982 Scientific study of nature no longer presents a problem for most Anglicans. Though fundamentalist (inerrantist, etc.) beliefs are tolerated, they are a minority. Episcopal bishop of Arkansas joins Roman Catholic, Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist, and Jewish leaders as successful plaintiffs against creationist "equal time" law. In US, the General Convention condemns special creationism. ("Resolved, the House of Bishops concurring, That this 67th General Convention affirms its belief in the glorious ability of God to create in any manner, and in this affirmation rejects the rigid dogmatism of the 'Creationist' movement, and be it further Resolved, That we affirm our support of the scientists, educators, and theologians in the search for truth in the creation God has given and entrusted us.")

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